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  one who is striking at the root."
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Cosmology Articles

   Cosmology - General
Nature & Definition of Space
The Neutrino Aether
The Nature of Force Fields
Stars: Nuclear or Electric?
Galactic Rotation
3 Gravitational Fallacies
Globular Clusters
Stars: Nuclear or Electric?
Search of Two Numbers
The Pleiades Problem
Arp's Quasar Ejection
Gamma Ray Bursters
Olber's Paradox
Local Group Galaxies
Velikovsky's Defense
Quasar in Front
The Fingers of God
Redshift Rosetta Stone
Seeing Red Review
Wings of a Butterfly
The Bug Nebula
The Bullet Cluster
The Ornament Nebula
   False Cosmology
Religious Big Bang
Big Bang "Science"
Dark Matter
Relativity & Einstein Tragedy
Dent in Space-Time Fabric?
Absurdity of Neutron Stars
Gravity Probes & Error Probes
Impossible Cosmology
Star Sqashes Cosmology
Cosmologists: Wrong or Blind?
Vampire Astronomy
Gravitational Anomalies-Earth
Magnetar Dream World
Meaning of Deep Impact
Deep Impact Anniversary
Plasma 99-9%
Nature of Ring Nebula
Tornadoes in Space I
Tornadoes in Space II
Electric Lights of  Saturn
EU Discharges & Scars
Electric Sun Skeptics
Star Fairy Ring
Ring of Stars
Planet Birthing
Planet Birthing-more
Europa Prediction
Solar Capture
Hubble Release Challenged
Velikovsky, Heat of Venus

Credit: Halton Arp, Seeing Red, p. 241

Bigger View of the Local Group

What can we "see" about the Local Group of galaxies now that "redshift- equals-distance" does not override observations? We can see that the Local Group stretches in a line along the minor axis of M31, the Andromeda galaxy, which is the dominant galaxy in the group

“The greatest mistake in my opinion, and the one we continually make, is to let the theory guide the model.... [S]cientists actually proceed on the belief that theories tell you what is true and what is not true! Of course that is absurd–observations and experiments describe objects that exist–they cannot be ‘right’ or ‘wrong.’ Theory is just a language that can be used to discuss and summarize relationships between observations. The model should be completely empirical and tell us what relationships between fundamental properties are required.”

Halton Arp,  Seeing Red

Previously we “saw”–in radio and x-ray light–that the dots of galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax clusters are connected with swirls of highly excited material. Incorporated into these swirls are quasars, compact clusters and active galaxies.

But we didn’t need to look so far to see a relationship that’s right before our eyes. The Local Group, of which our Milky Way is a member, stretches in a line along the minor axis of M31, the Andromeda galaxy, which is the dominant galaxy in the group. In the image above, the filled circles mark the locations of accepted members. Open circles and plus signs mark the locations of higher-redshift dwarf and spiral galaxies respectively. (Although in other clusters similar dwarfs and spirals are accepted as companions of the larger galaxies, these dwarfs and spirals are excluded because their systematically higher redshifts are too obvious.) Redshifts of several objects are printed beside their names.

Long-exposure photographs of this area reveal a cloud of low-luminosity material extending along this line of galaxies and engulfing them. That the higher-redshift galaxies are not “background objects” is shown by their interaction with the cloud: The interacting pair of galaxies, NGC935/IC1801, have a semicircle of brighter material around them. NGC918 has a jet that ends in a bright region of the cloud.

The high-redshift radio galaxy, 3C120, is most famous for its “faster-than-light” jet. Astronomers have measured the movements of knots of material in the jet. If the galaxy is located where the redshift-equals-distance theory dictates, the knots would have to be traveling six times the speed of light. But if 3C120 is a member of the Local Group, the knots would be traveling at only four percent of the speed of light.

Not shown in the diagram are the line of quasars extending across M33 and the cluster of quasars close around 3C120. In addition, low surface brightness galaxies, with redshifts between .015 and .018, cluster around these two galaxies.

Until recently, we saw stars as points of light in a dark and empty sky. With the invention of radio and x-ray telescopes, we began to see that the sky is filled with swirls of light. In our Local Group, we can now see this pattern of connectedness in visible light. The darkness was in our eyes and the emptiness was in our imaginations.

The institutions and theories of a dark and empty astronomy served us well for their time. But now is the time to imagine a new astronomy that’s bright and entwined. Arp closes his discussion of the Local Group with this question: “Do astronomers really prefer to elaborate obsolete theoretical assumptions rather than make new discoveries?”

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