IF I SEEK US
"There are a thousand hacking at the branches
of evil to
one who is striking at the root." -
Henry David Thoreau
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View of Yaki Point with periodic cliff formations.
The Grand Canyon: Part Two
Simple observation of the Grand Canyon's geological
formations calls the water erosion hypothesis into question.
A few variables
in an electric discharge can produce
a wide variety of shapes and patterns. The polarity
makes a difference, so cathode discharges create different
patterns than those from an anode.
When we speak of charged planets imbedded in the sun's
plasmasphere, they may be positively charged or negatively
charged—the important factor is whether they touch one
another. When the teardrop shaped double layers, or Langmuir
sheaths, surrounding planets come close enough a discharge
connection is made. The nature and strength of an
interplanetary discharge might depend on a number of
factors: charge accumulation, potential, conductivity of the
surface strata, and current flow.
If electric current discharges stick to a surface they tend
to rotate around a point and leave a circular crater with a
raised center area. If the discharge is narrow and intense
like a lightning bolt, it will leave a deep, sharp cut in
the substrate and the material will be accelerated away from
the point of contact.
Where the electric arc contacts and runs along or under the
surface, Birkeland currents might create a rille, or
canyon-shaped excavation. Often, this type of discharge
forms a series of overlapping craters, imparting a sculpted
effect to the canyon wall with periodic notches in the rim.
Finally, the discharge energy dissipates and forms a kind of
"wash" that is generally lower in elevation than the initial
In any heavy discharge the surrounding terrain swells and
becomes uplifted. In that case, the result is a "blister" or
raised area called a fulgamite. The size and shape of the
fulgamite depends on the underlying material properties as
The Grand Canyon's tributaries are generally short with
little evidence of the necessary water flowing into the ends
from the high desert floor. The jagged tributaries are
deeply cut and are characterized by nearly vertical walls.
They join the main canyon at right angles, a distinctive
sign of electric discharge phenomena.
Another unusual aspect to the Grand Canyon is the "islands"
that rise up from broad bases to the rim level. They are
delicate in comparison to the size of the canyon. They are
close to the canyon walls and demonstrate parallel
stratigraphy. How the water flow remained diverted around
these islands, or how erosion over millions of years could
have created them without undercutting and subsequent
collapse is difficult to explain.
In conclusion, the lack of eroded debris cannot be passed
over lightly. Not only is a vast amount of material from the
Grand Canyon missing, but a much greater amount of material
is missing from the same general area. Zion, Bryce Canyon,
Monument Valley, Canyonlands, and the Colorado Plateau have
been extensively eroded. Rock and soil has been removed to a
depth of more than a kilometer.
The top strata of the Grand Canyon makes up the bottom
strata of Zion, and the top of Zion continues to the bottom
of Bryce Canyon. The region of missing material is known as
the Great Denudation. Together with the Grand Canyon the
volume of missing debris amounts to tens of thousands of
cubic kilometers. How can this be?