"The trouble with most people isn't that they don't know, but that
what they know, ain't so!" - American philosopher Josh Billings
Aspects of the Great Pyramid
For those familiar with the valid reconstruction of ancient times,
the axis mundi, polar column or world or cosmic mountain was an
actual, visible, twisting column of material pulled "up" from the earth
and "down" from Mars thereby connecting these two planets at times. It was compared to the
umbilical cord connecting us to God, and at times looked like a
staircase or ladder, or "a pillar of smoke by day and a pillar of fire
by night". From the more habitable regions of the Northern Hemisphere,
it generally looked like a stepped pyramid.
This appearance was no doubt the fundamental driving force for the
building of these iconic monumental structures, but a massive pyramid
with a cavity inside is the ideal construction to use as a shelter from
the periodic rain of stones, fire and brimstone falling from the sky
during the planetary encounters of the era. Probably the use as a burial
tomb was part of a dual purpose.
The 144,000 polished casing stones of the Great Pyramid were so white
and reflective that they could be seen from the mountains of Israel hundreds
miles away. With a clear sky and bright sunlight reflected by this vast
mirrored surface of 5-1/4 acres, the Pyramid would have been notable from the moon.
In Revelation 14 prophecy, 144,000 is the number of special, clean, chaste people–
12,000 from each of the 12 tribes
of Israel&–who are redeemed from the world at the end time, who are
given a special song to sing, who "follow the Lamb wherever he goes",
and thus to ever be next to God for all eternity. The future holy city
of Jerusalem has walls of 144 cubits high.
The people of the area had viewed the Pyramid and its polished stones
with awe for centuries. But when a 13th century earthquake loosened some
of these casing stones, the Arabs recognized a great quarry of precut
stones that could be used to finish off palaces and mosques. For
instance, the casing stones were used to rebuild the new city of El
Kaherah plus Cairo mosques and palaces, including the Mosque of Sultan Hasan.
Amazingly, the outside surface stones are cut within 0.01 (1/100th) inch
of perfectly straight and at nearly perfect right angles for all six
sides. And they were placed together with an intentional gap between
them of 0.02 inch. Modern technology cannot place such 20-ton stones
with greater accuracy than those in the Pyramid.
Even more amazing is that the 0.02-inch gap was designed to allow space
for glue to seal and hold the stones together. A white cement that
connected the casing stones and made them watertight is still intact and
stronger than the blocks that it joins.
Whoever built the Pyramid used a technology that we still do not possess today
to quarry, cut and dress, move, and cement these stones. If the Great
Pyramid was built in about 15 years–one of the more noteworthy
estimates–then about 370 generally huge stone blocks weighing in total
about 1100 tons had to be moved and installed on average every day. Even
though it has now been discovered that a canal was built leading up to
the base of the pyramid, to anybody familiar with large construction projects,
this is mind-boggling and strongly urges the mind to reach for some kind of
exotic ability or technology that made this possible. Examples would be: suspension of
gravity, bicameral brain-mind control and coordination of the workers, alien assistance, etc.
On the other hand, Most of the stone blocks except the casing stones could
have been poured in place using forms, and then using the existing stones as
forms on whatever sides were there. Regardless, we cannot really tell, and
already know that the ancients had concrete formulations that are superior.
Another surprising thing that is not well known is that in May 1837 a
piece of crafted wrought iron plate was found inside where it could not
have been added later. The archaeologist, Hill reported,
"This is to certify that the piece of iron
found by me near the mouth of the air-passage, in the southern side of
the Great Pyramid at Gizeh, on Friday, May 26th, was taken out by me
from an inner joint, after having removed by blasting the two outer
tiers of the stones of the present surface of the Pyramid; and that no
joint or opening of any sort was connected with the above mentioned
joint, by which the iron could have been placed in it after the original
building of the Pyramid. I also shewed the exact spot to Mr Perring , on
Saturday, June 24th."
Perring was a civil engineer who examined the discovery spot with
Marsh, another civil engineer, and both came to the conclusion that the
iron plate was inserted while the Great Pyramid was being constructed.
Given that the tools to cut, dress and polish some of the stones must
have had to be iron, this one find casts serious doubt upon the entire edifice
of stone, copper, bronze and iron "ages" and their dating.
Whoever built it also had some advanced
knowledge of the Earth, because it was built in the right spot–one of
the few places that would support such a great weight. It is estimated
that it has settled about 0.25 inches since it was built, while much
less massive modern building settle inches in a matter of a decade or
so. The builder also knew where the greatest land mass of the Earth was
in both the North-South and East-West directions.
We know from geometry that there is a universal relationship between the
diameter of a circle and its circumference. Consider this: The height of
the Pyramid's apex is 5,812.98 inches, and each side is 9,131 inches
from corner to corner (in a straight line). If the circumference of the
Pyramid is divided by twice its height (the diameter of a circle is
twice the radius), the result is 3.14159, which just happens to be pi.
Incredibly, this calculation is accurate to six digits. So the Pyramid
is a square circle of sorts, and thus pi was designed into it 4,000 to 5,000 years ago.
Knowledge of Pi is demonstrated many times throughout aspects of the Pyramid.
Other numbers are also repeated throughout. Each of the Pyramids four
walls, when measured as a straight line, are 9,131 inches, for a total
of 36,524 inches. At first glance, this number may not seem significant,
but move the decimal point over and you get 365.24. Modern science has
shown us that the exact length of the solar year is 365.24 days.
All of the evidence in the Great Pyramid shows that about 4000 to 5000 years ago
somebody knew a great deal about the Earth. But it gets better, much
better: The average height of land above sea level (Miami being low and
the Himalayas being high), as can be measured only by modern-day
satellites and computers, happens to be 5,449 inches. That is the exact
height of the Pyramid.
All four sides of the Pyramid are very slightly and evenly bowed in, or
concave. This effect, which cannot be detected by looking at the Pyramid
from the ground, was discovered around 1940 by a pilot taking aerial
photos to check certain measurements. As measured by today's laser
instruments, all of these perfectly cut and intentionally bowed stone
blocks duplicate exactly the curvature of the earth. The radius of this
bow is equal to the radius of the Earth. This radius of curvature is
what Newton had long been seeking. Also, there is significant evidence
that it was intended to be the prime meridian marker for the earth's longitudinal system.
All in all, modern man is missing something huge in understanding the
ancient people and how they were able to do the things that they did.
Our modern "scientific" paradigm of Man developing up from lower life
forms is a major piece of the modern mythology nonsense.
[Fingerprints of the Gods by Hancock, p. 283-285]
had the pyramid taken to complete? How many men had worked on it? The
consensus among Egyptologists was two decades and 100 000 men. [John Baines
and Jaromir Malek, Atlas of Ancient Egypt, Time-Life Books, p. 160; The
Pyramids of Egypt., p. 229-30]
continued to climb, I reminded myself of the implications of all this.
It wasn't just the tens of thousands of blocks weighing 15 tons or
more that the builders had to worry about. Year in, year out, the real
crises would have been caused by the millions of
"average-sized" blocks, weighing say2.5 tons, that also had to be
brought to the working plane. The pyramid had been reliably estimated to consist
of a total of 2.3 million blocks [Edwards, The Pyramids of Egypt, p. 85].
Assuming that the masons
worked ten hours a day, 365 days a year, the mathematics indicate
that they would have needed to place 31 blocks in position every hour
(about one block every two minutes) to complete the pyramid in
twenty years. Assuming that construction work had been confined to
the annual three-month lay-off, the problems multiplied: four blocks
a minute would have had to be delivered, about 240 every hour. Such
scenarios are, of course, the stuff construction managers' nightmares
are made of. Imagine, for example, the daunting degree of
coordination that must have been maintained between the masons and the
quarries to ensure the requisite rate of block flow across the production
site. The problems for the pouring hypothesis are equally daunting.
Imagine also the havoc if even a single 2.5 ton block had
been dropped from, say, the 175th course. The physical and managerial
obstacles seemed staggering on their own, but beyond these was the
geometrical challenge represented by the pyramid itself, which had
to end up with its apex positioned exactly over the centre of its
base. Even the minutest error in the angle of incline of any one of the
sides at the base would have led to a substantial
misalignment of the edges at the apex.
the job been done? At the last count there were more than thirty
competing and conflicting theories attempting to answer that question.
The majority of academic Egyptologists have argued that ramps of
one kind or another must have been used."
This was the opinion,
for example, of Professor IES Edwards, a former Keeper of Egyptian
Antiquities at the British Musuem who asserted
categorically: "Only one method of lifting heavy weights was open to
the ancient Egyptians, namely by means of ramps composed of brick and earth which sloped
upwards from the level of the ground to whatever height was desired."
[Ibid., p. 220]
John Baines, professor of Egyptology at Oxford University,
agreed with Edward's analysis and took it further: "As the pyramid grew in
height, the length of the ramp and the width of its base were increased in
order to maintain a constant gradient (about 1 in
10) and to prevent the ramp from collapsing. Several ramps
approaching the pyramid from different sides were probably used."
[Atlas of Ancient Egypt, p. 139]
To carry an inclined plane to the top of
the GP at a gradient of 1:10 would have required a ramp 4800 feet long and
more than three times as massive as the GP itself (with an estimated volume
of 8 million cubic metres as against the Pyramid's 2.6 million cubic
metres). [Hodges, Keable; How the Pyramids Were Built; p. 123] Heavy weights
could not have been dragged up any gradient steeper than this by any normal
means. [Ibid., p. 11]
If a lesser gradient had been chosen, the ramp would have had to have
been even more absurdly and disproportionately massive. The problem was that
mile-high (sic "long")
ramps reaching a height of 480 feet could not have been made out of
"bricks and earth" as Edwards and other Egyptologists supposed.
On the contrary, modern builders and architects had proved that such
ramps would have caved in under their own weight if they had
consisted of any material less costly and less stable than the limestone
ashlars of the Pyramid itself. [Ibid., p. 13] Since this obviously
sense (besides, where had the 8 million cubic metres of surplus
blocks been taken after completion of the work?), other
Egyptologists had proposed the use of spiral ramps made of mud bricks
attached to the sides of the Pyramid. These would certainly have required
less material to build, but they would also have failed to reach the
top. [Ibid., p. 125-6.
Failure to reach the top would be because
spiral ramps and linked scaffolds overlap and exceed the space
available long before arrival at the summit] They would have presented
deadly and perhaps insurmountable problems to the teams of men attempting to
drag the big blocks of stone around their hairpin corners. And they would
have crumbled under constant use. Most problematic of all, such ramps would
have cloaked the whole pyramid, thus making it impossible for the architects
to check the accuracy of the setting-out during building. [Ibid., p. 126]
But the pyramid builders had checked the accuracy of the setting out, and
they had got it right...
Kerisel, a prominent soils engineer in France and also President
of the Franco- Egyptian Society, did an extensive study on the hauling
of large blocks using human labour and wooden sledges. Kerisel
kindly made this study - La Grande Pyramide et ses Derniers Secrets -
availible to us prior to its publication (due 1996).
The basis of
his calculations is that pressure on the soil cannot exceed 1.5
tons/sq.m. for ramps made of compacted soil (probably covered with stone
slabs) with slopes not exceeding 8 per cent. The friction coefficient
has been calculated at 15 per cent using soaked lime as the
lubricant. Kerisel noted that a greater pressure than 1.5 tons would cause
the lubricant to seep away and thus the friction coefficient
increase, making hauling even more difficult.
The average speed has
been worked out to be 0.3 metres/second with a 13-kilogram traction
force produced by each man. Thus the hauling of a 70-ton block would
require (70,000 times 0.15 times 1/13 =) 807 men and would take
some 9.25 hours for a ramp of one kilometre.
Kerisel worked out
that if the traction was much higher than 13 kg/man - even for a short
period of time - the result would be serious back injuries.
Thus, assuming at least 1 clear metre distance between each standing
man, 807 men in 6 rows would need a ramp space of 134.5 metres long
and 6 metres wide. The problem, of course, is greatly increased
for blocks of 200 tons within the confined working conditions
of the Sphinx and Valley Temples - a task almost impossible
to imagine with such primitive techniques." [Keeper of Genesis, p.
311-312, no. 9]
From Egypt by West in an article in Issue Number 7 (Spring '96)
Atalntis Rising magazine,
civilisations were capable of technological feats whose methodology
totally eludes the best scientific/engineering minds of today, yet
an obdurate academic establishment goes on insisting that slaves and
ramps are enough to account for these marvels. Modern experts in
building techniques assure us that slaves and ramps could not have
constructed these edifices, and that advanced mathematical, geodesic
and astronomical knowledge was absolutely required to account for
the precision of their siting and their astounding
So if these civilisations had at their command a
technology totally different in kind from our own, in certain
respects superior to our own, and at present, effectively
unimaginable to us, what else did they know that we do not know?"