PHILOSOPHERS AND TERMS
Abelard: 1079-1142 AD, , French. Nominalism, Realism,
not a rationalist.
Absolutism: The government of one man whose power is not limited.
[Commentary]: The site position is that the
unfallen balance of the universe does NOT operate this way.
Aesthetics: Science of sensual or non-conceptual
knowledge, based on the psychology of perception. Pursuit of beauty.
Agnosticism: Connotes the doctrine that man does not and cannot know
whether anything exist behind and beyond material phenomena, especially about a
Agricola, Johannes: 40-93 AD, German Reformer, upheld antinomian doctrine (Gospel is in
distinction from moral law).
Altruism: Introduced by Comte and his followers, it is the view
that the general welfare of society is the proper goal of an individual's
actions: opposed to egoism.
[Commentary]: The site position is that we
always act in self interest, even God, and given the proper principles and
values this IS the only defensible course.
Anabaptism: Against Baptism.
[Commentary]: The site position is that
baptism with water is an empty symbol taken from the Old Testament, that it
has no efficacy outside of being saturated with the truth.
Anarchism: Doctrine or faith in human perfectibility under the influence of reason and
education where the need for coercive government would disappear.
[Commentary]: Ultimately, when there is no sin
nor evil, there is no need for government of any kind, because all knowledge
will be available, and telepathic communication from one to many and from
many to one will be perfect. The pressure from time will be non-existant.
Anaxagoras: 500-428 BC Greek Believed that
Mind was responsible for the creation of
the world. Denied the divinity of the heavenly bodies.
[Commentary]: Good for him!
Animism: Originally the doctrine that the vital principle
and the soul are identical, now a primitive philosophy of dualism
or belief in spiritual vs material beings.
[Commentary]: The site position is that we are
spiritual beings housed in material bodies.
Anthony, (Saint): 250-350 BC Father of Monasticism.
Anthropomorphism: Application to God of human body or
mental qualities. Its total rejection leads to agnosticism.
[Commentary]: The site position is that the
Creator IS totally and only human.
Antinomianism: Doctrine of Ten Commandments or moral law not binding on believers
[Commentary]: It should
never have been clear that the Ten "Words" were meant to be law or promises.
And they were NOT dictated by God..
Apologetics: Christian theology concerned with the defense of
faith and defeat of rival systems on the intellectual plane.
Aquinas, Thomas: 1225-1274 AD, Italy.
Aristarchus: 310-220 BC, an ancient Greek astronomer and
mathematician who presented the first known heliocentric model, with the
Earth revolving around the "central fire". He put the planets in the correct
order of distance, and thought that the stars were other suns. These correct
ideas were probably adopted but later rejected by Ptolemy, and not until
1800 years after Aristarchus did Copernicus propose the heliocentric
configuration of the solar system again.
[Commentary]: This is an example of a simple
and profound truth that got buried and replaced by a falsity for centuries.
Aristotle: 384-322 BC
Athens. Scientist, built philosophy on phenomena, originator of
4 types of explanation, actuality and potential. Classifies all
systematic thinking into a trinity: 1. theoretical, i.e. first
philosophy, mathematics, physics 2. practical, i.e. ethics, politics,
economics 3. aesthetic, i.e. poetic, useful, beautiful.
Arius: 256-336 AD, Alexandria. Father of Arianism.
with doctrine of the "created son" and status different from God
the father which denies the full equality and godhood of Jesus.
[Commentary]: These are only troubling issues
in the wrong paradigm. The J person was the Original Creator, and actually
contributed to the creation of the "Father", the corpus of unfallen human
beings and their collective consciousness.
Arminius, Jacobus: 1560-1609 AD, Dutch Father of Arminianism. Believed that the bible must
not be in bondage to Aristotle. Became opposed to Calvinist determinism.
[Commentary]: denies that the Bible is the
Revelation of God, so the issue is moot.
Arminianism: A remonstrance on 5
points which are: 1. All who believe in Christ
shall be saved, therefore predestination is conditional.
2. Christ died for all men but his atonement is only effective for believers.
3. Men's free will cannot bring salvation unaided, for they need regeneration by the Holy Spirit in
order to respond to Christ. 4. Grace is the only means
whereby men can seek and perform what is good, but it is not irresistible.
5. Only thru the Holy Spirit can sin
be overcome, and so a believer may fall from grace.
[Commentary]: These issues don't come up in
the proper paradigm.
Arnauld, Antoine: 1612-1694 AD, French Roman Catholic
theologian, philosopher and mathematician, Chief
of the Jansenists.
[Commentary]: A brilliant man who wasted his
life sorting out falsities within the false paradigm.
Arndt, Johann: 1555-1621
AD, German, Forerunner of Pietism who
turned from scholasticism to mystical devotion based on the mystical
feeling of Christ dwelling within.
Asceticism: In stoic
philosophy, the mastering of the desires and
passions. In most systems
it tend to be negative and repressive of all the normal human desires
and tendencies. Christian ascetics have consistently affirmed the
aim of asceticism: to be the sanctification of the body by its
subjection to god's will or law.
[Commentary]: This is crippling nonsense for
humans made in the image of the Creator.
Athanasius, (Saint): 296-373 AD, Coptic Bishop of Alexandria.
Champion of Nicene Christianity, a renowned Christian theologian, a Church
Father, and the chief defender of Trinitarianism against Arianism.
Atheism: Technically means without Theism,
but sometimes connotes an extreme position of denying
the existence of God, but one that is often confused with Agnosticism and
[Commentary]: Technically, an atheist can
still be a deist.
Atomism: The theory that the universe is made
up of tiny, simple, indivisible particles that cannot be destroyed.
[Commentary]: It is hard to conceive
Augustine, (Saint): 354-430 AD, Rome. Greatest Latin father of
Considered by some to be the greatest psychologist and political thinker
since Aristotle. Augustine declared man to be so far corrupted by the
effects of the fall that he is guilty before God and deserving of
Damnation, unless by baptism: he enter into the redemption secured by
Christ's passion; and that man's will is enslaved to evil desires until
it is liberated by God's grace.
Aurelius, Marcus: 121-180 AD, Roman Stoic
emperor of Rome of great virtue and character.
Ayer, Alfred J.: 1910- AD, English. Defended logical positivism.
Babi-Baha'i: Persian Shiite
movement. Doctrines are simple and claimed to be the essence of
all monotheism:. Revelation is not final but progressive, all past
prophets are accepted as genuine, incarnation and reincarnation are
denied, universal peace, toleration and friendship are essential
principles. Has no priests nor special rites but prayers are enjoined
at fixed times; polygamy and alcohol forbidden, and asceticism: and
mendicancy discouraged. Women directed to share as equals in social
life. Has a special "administrative order" of "divine origin" destined to become the framework of a great world commonwealth.
[Commentary]: The site thinking is compatible
with SOME of this, but certainly not with the last sentiment about
Bacon, Roger: 1216-1292 AD, English Franciscan Philosopher.
Barclay, John: 1734-1798 AD, Scotland,
Founded Bereans, a sect of Calvinist Christians that
believed the knowledge of God is derived from the Bible alone; that
faith, illuminated by the Holy Spirit, is essential for understanding the
Bible and carries with it certain salvation, that unbelief is the
[Commentary]: Confused, misguided thinking
from the old paradigm.
Barth, Karl: 1886- AD, Swiss.
Barth's teaching marks a turning point in the history
of Christian theology. Barth's theology marks a new epoch for the
doctrine of predestination by assigning to Jesus as the Elect One and
the Reject One of God a unique place. Barth had a real problem
reconciling the "wholly other" aspect of God and the humanity of God.
Bede, (Saint): 673-735
AD, English Monk who
wrote many commentaries , homilies, letters
and treatises on biblical subjects. His aim was to hand on the learning
of the fathers, hence he was widely respected and not controversial,
being called "the venerable bede". His writing did much to establish
the practice of dating events from the birth of Christ.
Behaviorism: The view that one
can study animals and humans as input-output systems, the input being
sensory stimulation, reward and punishment, and the output being
behavior. This view dominated American psychology until circa 1960.
[Commentary]: It may be of limited value, but
it is the position of the site that this thinking is ultimately simplistic,
reductionist and of limited value.
Benedict, (Saint): 480-543 AD, Italy
Associated with Monachism, Founded Benedictine or Black
monks based on simple self-contained monastic family occupied with
common prayer, private meditative reading and active work.
Bengel, Johann A.: First protestant author to
treat the exegesis of the New Testament in a
thoroughly critical and judicious manner. Viewed the Bible as less of a
textbook of dogma and more an unfolding of God's purpose and immediacy.
[Commentary]: Even so, the foundational
assumption is wrong.
Bentham, Jeremy: 1748-1832 AD, English. Effective philosopher of
reform in law, politics and morals who impacted developments
in these areas in England to a great extent.
Bergson, Henri L.: 1859-1941 AD, French.
Developed his doctrine of polar opposition between
consciousness and the world of things in space. The external world, as
science knows it is a world of discrete measurable things, whose
ultimate elements may undergo rearrangement, but never really change,
and whose relations are rigidly determined by mechanical laws.
Consciousness is the opposite and is complex yet indivisible; for all
its partial phases and successive stages interpenetrate each other–it
is wholly qualitative. When we attribute quantitative determinations to
it, we do so by confusion. Developed a concept of "duration" in which
it is the "stuff of life" and developed his ideas of evolution around
this concept. Contrasted the "closed" morality of social groups with
the "open" morality of the prophet, seer, reformer.
[Commentary]: What a mishmash of
Berkely, George: 1685-1753 AD, Irish-English,
also known as Bishop Berkely, advanced theory known as immaterialism, and
who argued with Newton's iconcepts on time and space, with ideas that were
precursors to those of Mach and Einstein.
Bernard, (Saint): 1090-1153 AD, French
Besant, Annie: 1847-1933 AD, English. Labored in
the cause of Theosophy, founded Central Hindu College, Benares.
Bidle, John: 1615-1662 AD, English non-Trinitarian,
Father of English Unitarianism. He denied the pre-existence of Jesus but
accepted the Virgin Birth, denied original sin and eternal punishment and
accepted the Bible as the word of God.
[Commentary]: The site thinking is pretty much
opposed to Bidle's thinking.
Boehme, Jakob: 1575-1624 AD, German Father of German Theosophy.
Boethius, Severinus: 480-524 AD, Roman. Boethius composed his
Consolation of Philosophy, a philosophical treatise on fortune,
death, and other issues, which became one of the most popular and
influential works of the Middle Ages.
Bradley, F. H.: 1846-1924 AD, English
Brahmanism: The religious
doctrines and system of the Brahmans, who worship Brahma, their supreme and
eternal essence or spirit of the universe and the chief member of the
trinity and creator of the universe.
[Commentary]: It is worthwhile to note that
Brahma was the original sun-god Saturn.
Brentano, Franz: 1838-1917 AD, Austrian Theist who claimed that the essence of a knowledgeable
soul is to refer beyond itself and to develop this referential
evidence. Philosophers who have grasped this truth may avoid both "psychologism:"
and "irrealism:", that is the fallacies (a) of describing
mental facts as if it were not their business to refer beyond
themselves and (b) of forgetting that the true intent of minds is to
refer to real things.
Brunner, Emil: 1889-1966 AD, Swiss reformed protestant
theologian. Controverted with Barth over human nature in relation to God,
and rejected Pelagian concepts of human cooperation with God in the act of
[Commentary]: The site author can't find any
reason to take Brunner seriously.
Bruno, Giordano: 1548-1600 AD, Italy,
Fundamentally a Pantheist, his system religion hooked up with
philosophy, and he stressed the immanence and omnipresence of the Divine
Mind. This was allied to a belief in the unity of nature and the
infinity of the universe, to which he attributed one indivisible soul,
called monism:. Perhaps his monism:, in which he
also developed Cusa's theory on the coincidence of opposites, is the
most valuable part of his thought, together with his theories on morals,
which present virtue as consciousness of a rule reducible to a
universal law. One of the most brilliant thinkers of his time, Bruno
paved the way for Spinoza, who owed much to him, and indeed for the
modern theories on immanence.
Buber, Martin: 1878-1965
AD, German-Jewish philosopher-theologian concerned with dialogue and
existence who advocated of an Israeli nation state without a focus on Jewish
culture or religion, and who spurned the titles of philosopher or
theologian, and claimed he was not interested in ideas but experience; he
would not talk about God but only relationships to God.
[Commentary]: The site author can't find any
reason to take Buber seriously.
Buchner, Ludwig: 1824-1899 AD, German
Attempted scientifically to establish a materialistic view of the universe.
Buddha, Gautauma: 563-483 AD, Indian.
Bulfinch, Thomas: 1796-1867 AD, American author who said
of his work, "Our work is not for the learned, nor for the theologian, nor
for the philosopher, but for the reader of English literature, of either
sex, who wishes to comprehend the allusions so frequently made by public
speakers, lecturers, essayists, and poets, and those which occur in polite
Bultmann, Rudolf: 1884-? AD, German
New Testament critic and theologian. He advocated
rewriting the NT in existential rather than mythological language,
relying heavily on the concepts of Heidegger's existentialist philosophy.
Bunyan, John: 1628-1688 AD, English prolific preacher
and writer, author of The Pilgrims Progress, one of the more popular
books of the genre. His thinking later became popular with the Victorians.
[Commentary]: His theology was wrong, wrong,
wrong, but he was one of the more prominent Christian preachers and writers
of the time.
Buridan, Jean: 1300-1358 AD, French Follower of Occam,
Burke, Edmund: 1729-1797
AD, English political philosopher of wide vision and luminous
thought who examined all the problems of his age, always basing his
decision on moral grounds yet using the twin touchstones of history and expediency.
Cantor, Georg: ?-1918 AD, Mathematician
who unfolded the structure of the infinities, showing that there is an
infinite series of larger infinities.
Carnap, Rudolf: 1891-19 ? AD, German One of the original members
of the Vienna circle who developed the doctrines of logical positivism:, he did his earliest
work in the philosophy of science and attempted to establish a rigorous phenomenalism:.
His work in logic was influenced by his doctrine that
traditional philosophical problems were due to logical confusion and
could be eliminated by more careful attention to syntactical and
semantical aspects of language.
Calvin, John: 1509-1564 AD, French
Cassian, John: 360-435 AD, Israeli monk and theologian who
led a protest against St.
Augustine's theology of predestination, founding the school known to
moderns as "Semi-Pelagianism:"
Casuistry: In the
widest sense, the reasoning which enables a man to decide in a
particular case between conflicting or apparently conflicting duties.
A further development of casuistry is Probabilism.
[Commentary]: In a world of myriad shades of
grey, casuistry cannot be avoided.
Descartes or his philosophical, mathematical ideas or coordinates.
Catastrophism: The theory that geological changes are caused
in general by sudden upheavals rather than gradually.
[Commentary]: Up until about 250 years ago
when armchair scholars–who were trying to stem the influence of the Church
of England–developed gradualism based on boundless amounts of time, the
world was overwhelmingly catastrophic in its understanding of earth's
Causal decoupling implies that to understand the material basis
of certain rules, one must go to the next level down; but the rules can
be applied with confidence without any reference to the more
basic level. The laws of chemistry depend on the existence and
properties of the atomic nucleus but the detailed laws of nuclear
physics are not needed to understand the laws of chemistry. The
division of natural science reflects this causal decoupling in the
differentiation of nuclear physics, atomic physics, chemistry,
molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics.
[Commentary]: The site position is that is that this makes
Causality: Seems to be
the necessary basis of all prediction of the future and of all
inference from one existent to another. Modern discussions about
causality center around the efficient cause defined as the immediate
producer of a change. Despite attempts to undermine or prove causality,
the chief reasons why it is still accepted are (a) that it seems
self-evidently true; (b) that it is in some form a necessary presumption
[Commentary]: The site position is that is that prediction is limited
because the creation of the future involves purpose as well as cause.
Celibacy: The view, in
those dualistic philosophies which regard all matter as intrinsically
evil, that abstinence from sexual action is an essential condition of
the good life. Celibacy is canonized in the roman catholic church.
[Commentary]: This approach may avoid some
troubling problems in life, but the underlying thinking is sick and twisted.
Centralism: The principle or
system of centralizing power, authority.
[Commentary]: This is generally antithetical
to the way the Creator designed human affairs to work.
Classicism: The aesthetic
principles or qualities regarded as characteristic of ancient Greece and
Rome; objectivity, formality, balance, simplicity, restraint, etc.
influence or power of the clergy, or policies favoring this.
[Commentary]: Has no place with true Gospel
Charron, Pierre: 1541-1603 AD, French moralist and theologian who established an enduring
reputation in the history of philosophy as psychologist, skeptic, and
forerunner of deism: who produced a most severe denunciation of a
revengeful, prying and propitiable God.
[Commentary]: The site thinking also reflects
most of this.
Chassidimism: Jewish movement,
founded on piety that arose before and during the Maccabaean
period, that was the forerunner of pharisaism.
Chiliasm: Also called Premillennialism, is belief in the
physical return of Jesus to the earth before a Millennium age of peace on
earth in what is called the Second Coming.
[Commentary]: The site position is that is
that there is no such "Millenium". See Second
Christology: The study or
discussion of the status of Jesus as Messiah or Son of God, and
his nature as God and human.
Chronology: The science which
treats of historical dating and sequence, its object being to arrange the various
events which have occurred in the history of the world in their correct
order and to ascertain the intervals between them.
Clement: 150-215 AD, Alexandria.
Christian theologian who drew freely on
non-Christian sources, notably Plato, the stoics, and Philo, from whom
he found support for Christian ideals. His theology contained many of
the germs of later mysticism:.
Clement I: 1st century
AD, Rome. He was counted
as one of the apostolic fathers and
supported the apostolic succession. He may have been executed in 95
on charges of atheism: or gnosticism: and Jewish practices.
Clericalism: From Clergy.
The theory of a distinction between the Clergy and laity, where
certain men have inherited a special dispensation to be holders of an
[Commentary]: The site position is that this distinction is invalid.
Colenso, John: W.: 1814-1883 AD, S. Africa A
bishop who opposed the doctrine of eternal punishment and who questioned the historical
accuracy of the Pentateuch and Joshua.
[Commentary]: The site position agrees with
Colenso on these
Communism: A doctrine of social equality and a critique of the
inequalities associated with
individual property which has been traced back to the Essenes, to Plato,
to Thomas Aquinas and to Sir Thomas More. Formally, the political
movement dating from The Communist Manifesto of 1848. article I
of which has the aim of effecting: "the overthrow of the bourgeoisie, the
establishment of the rule of the proletariat, the abolition of be bourgeois
social order founded upon class antagonism, and the inauguration of a new
social order wherein there shall be neither classes nor private property".
Comparative Ethics: The study of the moral beliefs of men, i.e. what
is right and wrong in human
life and action. It is distinguished from moral philosophy by the fact
that it is chiefly concerned, not with the validity of moral beliefs,
but with the question of what in fact men's moral beliefs have been,
with the object to elucidate the nature of morality.
[Commentary]: The site position is that this fails to see the
essential difference between morality and ethics.
Comparative Religion: .
Comte, Auguste: 1798-1857 AD, French Founder of Positivism.
Conceptualism: The doctrine, intermediate between nominalism and realism,
that universals exist explicitly in the mind as
concepts, and implicitly in the similarities shared by particular objects.
Concretism: The practice of
seeking to give definite form to abstract things or ideas. See Reify.
Condillac, Etienne: 1715-1780 AD, French
Founder of sensationalism, He rejected the
materialistic and atheistic conclusions which some of his followers
immediately drew. He believed all knowledge was derived from sensation
and reflection and rejects the deductive rationalization of Descartes,
Spinoza and Leibniz.
Condorcet, M. J. A.: 1743-1794 AD, French
Became the chief of the ideologists, a group of
materialistic philosophers concerned mainly with the origin and nature
of human knowledge. He looked forward to a human Utopia founded on
reason and regulated by brotherly love.
Confucius: 551-479 BC, China Philosopher of ethics.
As an ethical teacher Confucius
takes his stand by the side of Gautama Buddha and Mohammed, but he is
differentiated from these founders of world religions by the absence
from his teaching of everything to do with the supernatural. China's
great philosopher displayed neither the mysticism: of Buddha, the
spirituality of Christ nor the religious fervor of Mohammed. He
worshipped the ancient gods of China but as a teacher he dealt only with
mundane affairs, declaring the ways of heaven and the laws of other
worlds to be beyond human comprehension. His appeal was primarily to
reason, seldom to the emotions, never to the theistic immanence in man.
A humanist rationalist.
Confucianism: See Chinese Philosophy
Congregationalism: The doctrine held by those
congregations which put emphasis on the autonomy of
the individual group versus denominationalism.
[Commentary]: The site thinking rejects the
whole idea of denominations.
Conservatism: In the social and
governmental field this is the conscious or instinctive
preference for the maintenance of existing institutions and of the
customary way of doing things. It is not so much a dislike of change
itself as a suspicion of changes out of harmony with the existing
political, social or moral environment. It is predisposed to give to
existing political institutions the benefit of the doubt on the ground
that they have grown up with the national life and have inherited a
measure of emotional and practical support, acquiescence or legitimacy. In
politics, it stands for minimal or limited government.
Constantine, F. V.: 280-337 AD, Rome
The first Christian emperor, he was a strong adherent of
the sun worship of his ancestors; but before his march into Italy he was
converted to Christianity, and instituted religious freedom. He spent 4
years busying himself with defeating Donatism but admitted defeat and
granted them tolerance. Because of the Melitian schism and the Arian "Heresy" he summoned the first ecumenical council of Nicaea. For some
reason unknown he put to death his own son and his own wife. He founded
the second Rome at Byzantium.
Constructivism: Also known as Constructionism.
Covenantalism: The belief in and
emphasis of the promises recorded in the Bible, ostensibly made by God, and
generally divided into two, the old covenant and the new covenant.
[Commentary]: The site position is that this is all mythology,
and neither old or new "covenant has any validity.
Copernicus, Nicolaus: 1473-1543 AD, Renaissance/Reformation-era
mathematician and astronomer who formulated a heliocentric model of the
universe (solar system) that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the
center, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated
such a model some eighteen centuries earlier. He adduced the principle that
overvalued (bad) money gets circulated and drives out undervalued (good)
money that flees the arena or gets hoarded.
Cosmogony: The origin or
generation, or a theory of these, of the universe.
Cosmology: The branch of
philosophy and science that deals with the study of the universe as a whole
and of its form, nature, etc. as a physical system.
Cranmer, Thomas: 1489-1556 AD, English chief of
individual influence on the English Reformation.
Creationism: The doctrine that a personal Creator created the
universe from nothing i.e. "Creatio ex Nihilo", and that not by any logical or metaphysical
necessity but by the unnecessary creative volition of himself.
[Commentary]: The site position is that the Creator started a family,
and that every member is a creator with equal involvement in the growing
Croce, Benedetto: 1866-1952 AD, Italy His
philosophy has reality consisting solely in
activity and process because mind is what it does. Mind's activity has
two distinct forms, theoretical and practical; with the first, mind
understands things and makes them its own; with the second, it creates
and changes them. Each of these two forms has two distinct
subdivisions, theoretical activity being either intuition or
conception, practical activity being either the willing of the
individual or the universal. These give rise to four spiritual
activities (art, philosophy, economico-political activity and morality)
and to four corresponding values (beauty, truth, utility, and goodness).
[Commentary]: The site position is that these ideas are worth
Cynicism: In the
ancient world this was a way of life invented by Diogenes, of which
simplicity, freedom from convention and denunciation of other men's
vice's were the chief characteristics. Cynics considered their way of
life to be not a general ideal but one to which they were called by God,
whose soldiers they were. The cynics were finally merged in the
Christian preachers and ascetics.
Cyrenaics: A school of
Greek apologists of Hedonism:, Cyrenaics held that the end to be
aimed at was the pleasure of the moment and that the accumulation of
such pleasures could give happiness. Although they would not undertake
present trouble for the sake of an uncertain future pleasure, they
would decline present pleasures that appeared likely to cause future
pain. They considered all pleasures equally good in the sense that they
were to be judged purely on their amount; mental pleasures on this score
generally inferior to physical pleasures. Good sense was necessary to
the pleasant life to enable men to make the best but also to warn them
against longing for past pleasures and anticipation of future pleasure.
Cyril, (Saint): ?-444 AD, Alexandria, The resolute defender
of the doctrine of unity of Christ's person.
Darwin, Charles: 1809-1882 AD, Eng The
uniformitarian evolutionist who had the greatest impact
on modern natural philosophy with his epoch-changing The Origen of
the Species by Means of Natural Selection.
Darwinism: The Darwinian
Theory, or adherence to this theory holding that all species of plants and
animals developed from earlier forms by hereditary transmission of slight
variations in successive generations, and that the forms which survive are
those that are best adapted to the environment; also known as natural
Deduction: Reasoning in which the reasoner tries to establish
the truth of some proposition (called the conclusion) by showing that it follows
necessarily from, or is strictly implied by, a certain other
proposition(s) and premise(s) already taken to be true.
Definition: A fundamental aspect of what constitutes a language and
logic; a special proposition or
judgment precisely delimiting the meaning of a symbol or the essence of a thing.
[Commentary]: The site puts an emphasis on
building with proper definitions.
Deism: The name
usually given to the theological and religious movement of the
latter half of the 17th and first half of the 18th centuries. Europe
was much influenced by the scientific movement and upon the basis of
incipient scientific discoveries the vogue of natural religion was
developed. Deist believed that the work of God as shown by the study of
the created universe was as reliable a guide to his character as the
study of his word written in the Bible. This natural religion
emphasized the capacity of mankind through the exercise of reason to
apprehend enough of the nature of God and of the duty of men for
salvation without the positive precepts laid down in scriptural
revelation. In particular the beliefs in the existence and beneficence
of God, in the necessity and obligation of the practice of virtue by
men, in the immortality of the soul and in the surety of a future state
of rewards and punishments could be established without the aid of
revelation. In order to accommodate this religion of nature to the
Christian revelation a series of attempts was made to interpret
Christianity as a simple republication of natural religion and to banish
from Christianity all doctrines not comprehended within this lowest
common denominator; hence the rationalistic reconstructions of the Bible.
Democritus: 5th century BC, Greek philosopher who developed
the atomic theory where both
indivisible, ingenerable, impenetrable, indestructible, unmodifiable
atoms and the void are the ultimate realities. His recognition of true
knowledge proves that he was not a complete skeptic. Although not a
hedonist, he paved the way for the theology of Epicurus.
Demonology: The doctrine that
relates to spiritual beings inferior in rank to deities
but yet capable of influencing human affairs. The earlier and more
widespread conception of the demon was merely that of a powerful agency
intermediate between gods and men. The gradual differentiation between
the beneficent and the malignant qualities of demons resulted in the
division into good spirits or guardian angels and evil spirits or
devils; and Christian theology, developing earlier Jewish ideas
(themselves powerfully modified by Persian dualism:), worked the one
class up into an elaborate hierarchy of angels and archangels, the
other into a formidable host of fallen angels or devils, considered as
continually employed in frustrating the good purposes of God and marshalled under one master-spirit, the Devil proper. The guardian
angel concept corresponds with such conceptions as the Roman genius
and the famous daimon of Socrates.
Demonism: Belief in the
existence and power of demons, or demi-gods.
[Commentary]: The site position is that there
are only fallen human beings, that may have different levels of empowerment
in various locales of the galaxy.
or support of the principles or system of division into denominations,
Deontology: From Greek deon, "that which is binding". Supporters of this ethical system hold
two main positions: first, that the concepts of duty and obligation are
simple and not analyzable in terms, say, of promotion of good; secondly
that there is no general reason why acts which are obligatory are so.
The right and the production of the most good need not coincide. They
say they are not content with anti-utilitarian polemics but their
primary intention is positive and constructive and is a revival of
intuitionism, i.e. of intuitions of right and not like More or Sidgewick
intuitions of only the good.
[Commentary]: The site position is that seems to accept a false
dichotomy between right and good.
Descartes, Rene: 1596-1650 AD, French. Generally
regarded as the father of modern philosophy.
Despotism: Rule or
government by, or acceptance and support of the political system, methods
and acts of an autocrat or despot.
[Commentary]: The site position is that this has no place in the realm
of proper believers.
The doctrine that everything, esp.
one's choice of action, is determined by a sequence of causes independent of
one's volition or will.
Dewey, John: 1859-1952 AD, Amer A philosopher
of great influence in the fields of
law, education, psychology, history and the social disciplines.
despite his criticism: of the main classical traditions in philosophy on
the ground that their theories of mind and experience were inadequate,
his own conception of the nature and office of philosophy was
essentially classical. For Dewey scientific knowledge was the paradigm
of all reliable knowledge. He maintained that the rationale of the
pattern of scientific inquiry in its most extended sense was applicable
to the problem of determining the validity or truth of judgments of
value. At the same time he stressed, long before the logical
positivists and existentialists, that values contain an irreducible
element of commitment; but this did not place them beyond the reach of
Dewey's technical philosophy articulates an experimental
naturalism:, rooted in modern science, which rejects all forms of
philosophical idealism: and all varieties of traditional empiricism:.
Influenced by evolutionary biology, Dewey naturalized the concept of mind.
He construed it as an active response of the "acculterated" organism: as a whole to challenges and obstacles
which, by interfering with habitual behavior, create problems. Human
experience is not some thing inaccessibly private or subjective; it is "transactional" with the environment. In contradistinction to that of
Locke and Mill, the transactional approach to mind contends that data
are not found or given but always "taken" with respect to a specific
problem. Ideas are not images but "plans of actions". Their meaning
is to be understood in terms of their expected consequences in use.
Their truth is determined by the extent to which the predicted
consequences of the action or experiment to which they lead are
fulfilled in fact. For Dewy, truths may save or be fatal,cure or
kill,but in any event the truth cannot be established without some
literal change in the world, i.e. in the problematic solution. He
claimed that his theory was the only one which plausibly explained how
thought could make a difference to the world, something beyond the power
of Cartesian dualism:, mechanistic or monistic materialism:, or idealism:
Diabolism: Dealings with, or
belief in or worship of the Devil or devils.
[Commentary]: The site
position is that there are no
beings higher or more powerful than humans.
a Greek word meaning conversation, this was the method used by
Socrates to criticize and elicit truth from the preconceptions of those
with whom he argued. He asked for a definition of the subject under
discussion and then tested it by cross-questioning his interlocutor.
Instances were produced to which the definition did not apply, with the
result that it was discarded in favor of another which, while preserving
such merits as the first had possessed, transcended its errors and
deficiencies. Plato regarded dialectic as the method of philosophy;
while the mathematician argued deductively from hypotheses accepted at
the start, the philosopher submitted hypotheses to criticism: and
gradually advanced to a principle at once non-hypothetical, certain and
true. Aristotle differed from Plato in treating dialectic as inferior
to strict demonstration. The Eleatics used it purely negatively and
Hegel called the movement of
thought from thesis through antithesis to synthesis dialectic. In place
of Hegel's idealism: for which thought came first, nature and history
second, Marx substituted a materialism: which gave priority to matter.
Didache: A Christian
document quoted by Clement and Origen and regarded by some to be
genuine legislation by persons with claim to apostolic authority, it is
a manual of church order.
[Commentary]: The site position is
that there is no
profound efficacy with this document.
Diderot, Denis: 1713-1784
AD, French philosopher who showed how greatly all our ideas depend
on our senses. He fore-shadowed the evolutionary doctrine and evolved
the first modern conception of the cellular structure of matter. He
exploited brilliantly the dialectical presentation of his materialist
philosophy. The most original thinker of the French 18th century, he
was in turn a deist, a pantheist, skeptic, and atheist. He co-edited a
great encyclopaedia for France where the focus was to present knowledge
as an organized whole, stressing the interconnections between the sciences.
Diocletian, Gaius: 245-313 AD, Roman emperor who was responsible for a purge of Christian
scriptures and severe persecution of Christians circa 298-313 AD,.
Diogenes: 412-323 BC Greek Founder of the Cynics.
500 AD, The pseudonym taken by a disciple of
the neoplatonist philosopher
Proclus who was converted to Christianity and whose writings have been
regarded as the chief non-canonical but doctrinal authorities. In his
relation to contemporary controversy, the author appears as a moderate
Chalcedonian, as conciliatory to the monophysites and as a leader of
mystical asceticism: who subordinates its practice to ecclesiastical
discipline. His writings teach a way to enjoyment of the knowledge of
God, based on the neoplatonist postulate of a power infused by God in
the soul to that end, and culminating in the doctrine of perfection by
ecstasy of an approach to God through moral purification and mental
Divination: The act of
obtaining information about unknown happenings or future events from
supernatural sources by means of signs and occult technique. Behind it
lies the belief that the fortunes and destinies of earth are determined
by the decrees of the eternal world and that human understanding is
capable of comprehending divine thought through supernatural means. A
broad distinction may be made between artificial divination by
astrology, lots, augury and the like, and, natural divination by dreams
and prophetic oracles. The early Christian controversialists accepted
the supernatural inspiration of the pagan oracles, but explained that it
came not from God, as it did to the Hebrew prophets and the saints, but
from the Devil and his evil angels imitating the divine methods.
Divine Right: The doctrine asserting
that kings (and all other legitimate rulers), because they derive their
authority directly from God, are responsible to him alone and not also
to their subjects, from whom they can claim unlimited obedience.
Docetism: The doctrine,
developed before 200 AD,, that Christ's manhood and hence his sufferings
were merely phantasmal or illusory.
1170-1221 AD, Spain, Founder of the Dominicans,
friars of the ORDER OF PREACHERS, also known as "black Friars". Since
the 16th century the Dominicans have consistently claimed that their
interpretation and development of the thought of Thomas Aquinas is
alone the correct one. Dominican thought is based on Christianized
Aristotle, Thomism:, Scholasticism:.
Donatism: A Christian sectarian movement in north Africa which
theologically claims that the church must be kept holy by rigorous expulsion
of sinners, that outside the one visible church sacraments are invalid, and
that they are the one, true catholic church.
cent BC Greek An Athenian lawgiver who was
appointed to draw up a
law-code for the disordered state, his law penalties have a tradition of
severity and other such laws and measures are described as draconian.
Diabolism: Dealings with, or
belief in or worship of the Devil or devils.
Druidism: The religious and philosophical system of the Druids.
Dualism: A name given
in philosophy to any theory which regards everything that there is as
somehow two. The theory may belong to either of two general
types: either that there are only two things, i.e. only two genuine
substances however many "things" in the ordinary sense there may appear
to be; or that regardless of their ultimate number, all existing
things fall into two categories, such as mind and matter, or derive from
two principles, such as good and evil, or light and darkness (See
Manichaeism), or the limited and the unlimited (early Pythagoreanism).
Dualism: in a looser sense, is a broad but not necessarily exhaustive
division running through a philosophy, such as Plato's continued
stressing of the division between the fluctuating world appearing to
the senses and the eternal world of forms apprehended by the mind. The
distinction of the noumenal from the phenomenal world was a major
feature of Kant's philosophy. Many philosophers regard dualism: as
merely a half-way house to monism: from pluralism.
Dynamism: The theory that
force or energy, rather than mass or motion, is the basic principle of all
Ecclesiasticism: The proclivity to emphasize the church
and its organization, clergy, rituals and customs.
the community of truth believers, there is no formal organization nor
clergy, rituals, old customs.
from various systems, doctrines and sources.
Ecumenism: The principles or
practice of promoting cooperation or better understanding among differing
luck with that!
Eddy, Mary Baker: 1821-1910 AD, American
Edwards, Jonathan: 1703-1758 AD, American,
Egalitarian: Of, advocating
or characterized by the belief that all men should have equal political,
social and economic rights.
Ego: 1. The self;
the individual as aware of himself. 2. Egotism:, conceit. 3. Philos.
the self, variously conceived as a spiritual substance on which experience
is superimposed, the series of acts and mental states introspectively
recognized, etc. 4. Psycho. that part of the psyche which
experiences the external world through the senses, organizes the thought
processes rationally, and governs action; it mediates between the impulses
of the id, the demands of the environment, and the standards of the
doctrine that self-interest is the proper goal of
all human actions and the
view that every man chooses to do only what is in his own interest;
alternately, that he ought only to act thus; or again that he is unable
to act from any other motive than self-interest. The word is sometimes
used to denote a metaphysical system of subjective idealism:. Opposed
Eleatic School: The group of ancient Greek
philosophers founded circa 540 BC and reputedly established by
Xenophanes. His unitary pantheism: and his repudiation of
anthropomorphic conceptions of the Godhead may contain the germ of the Eleatic doctrine and have led Plato and Aristotle to class him with
"partisans of the One"; but his title to be considered a philosopher has
been disputed. Parmenides, the real author of the school's doctrine,
developed a rigid monism: in opposition to the teaching of Heraclitus
and the Ionian cosmologists, as well as to contemporary Pythagoreanism,
from which he may have seceded. Denying all change,
motion, diversity and vacuum on the ground of inconceivability, he
insisted on the absolute unity, permanence and indestructibility of real
being. Zeno defended indirectly the doctrine of his master with great
skill and subtlety against the Pythagoreans by demonstrating the
contradictions inherent in their assumptions. He invented the famous
paradoxes about motion and other antinomies, and in his dialectic we see
the beginnings of a science of logic. Melissus argued in prose, and
differed from Parmenides in maintaining the spatial infinity of being,
as well as its eternity. Despite Aristotle's poor opinion of his
logical acumen Melissus was a far-sighted clear thinker, who saw in
atomism: the only logical alternative to his corporeal monism:, thus
pointing the way for Leucippus.
Eleaticism: The theory, from
the ancient Eleatic Greek school of philosophy, that the singular and
unchangeable "Being" was the only
reality and that plurality, change, and motion were only illusory.
[Commentary]: How does that help us to
understand and deal with the human condition?
Elitism: Government or control by an elite class.
system where election to salvation is the state of those for whom God
has of his own will determined that they shall be saved. The doctrine
of original sin implies that all men are by nature liable to
damnation. But Christ's atoning death provided salvation for those
that have faith in it; and, further, God has chosen those who shall have
this saving faith. Luther's emphasis on "justification by faith alone" derived from St. Augustine's election-doctrine based on St. Paul's
teaching. Calvin's systematic statement of the doctrine makes election
to salvation unconditional and therefore not dependent, as Roman
theology made it, on merit or "good works". Thus election was received
as a joyful and reassuring doctrine. The identity and number of the
elect being known to God alone, not all in the visible church are
necessarily elect; nor are all outside it necessarily excluded. Yet
sincere faith in Christ, godly living and faithful fellowship with the
church afford presumptive evidence of election. Some statements of the
doctrine have unduly stressed the logically correlative doctrine of
reprobation for those not elect. Against these, Arminian doctrine
protests that salvation is offered by God to all and that all who accept
in faith may be assured of it.
Ellis, Henry: 1859-1939 AD, Eng
Psychologist who in 1898 published the first volume of his Studies
in the Psychology of Sex, and whose work had a profound influence on
contemporary views about sex.
Elyot, Thomas: 1490-1546 AD, English Humanist
who translated some of the classics and excerpted his most famous work
from the writings of Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Quintillian, Plutarch
and other classics. He was the first Englishman to familiarize certain
important concepts derived from the classics. We owe to him such words
as "liberty", "democracy", "aristocracy", "society", "loyalty", and "beneficence", all apparently coined for his moral teaching in The
Emerson, Ralph W.: 1803-1882 AD, American
Eventually the leader of the transcendental movement, he was carrying
the "purifying" spirit of his forbears to its logical conclusion. His
essays and poems, taken together, mark the culmination of the romantic
movement in the literature of the U.S. In Carlyle he found a kindred
spirit in search of the truth of the heart rather than the mind. This
purpose was succinctly stated in his first published volume, Nature,
a testament to what he now thought to be the "first philosophy", which
contains the seeds of his later writing. Philosophically this book
presents the essential doctrines of Concord Transcendentalism;
substitution of the "Oversoul" for a personal god; exact
correspondence of the moral and natural laws; freedom for the
self-reliant individual to choose the enlightened way by exercise of his
infallible intuition; and faith that the regeneration of the race can be
best accomplished by self-culture rather than by social reconstruction.
A suspended dualism is at the core of his philosophical position, and
only in his heart was his pragmatic acceptance of experience
successfully reconciled to his romantic faith in goodness and unity on
the plane of the ideal.
BC Greek Philosopher who supplied the first
pluralistic "answer" to Parmenides, though he had Pythagorean
affiliations. Adopting Parmenides' sphere of being, uncreated and
indestructible, and his denial of void (though not of motion), he fell
back on an ultimate plurality of real substances in order to explain the
world of sensible appearance. He postulates four ultimate "roots" or "elements", fire, air, water and earth, qualitatively different but
possessing the permanence and indestructibility of Parmenides" being;
these mingle with each other in dives ways and in fixed proportions to
produce the variety of compound bodies perceived by the senses. Two
additional mythical substances , love and strife, pictured as tenuous
and mobile fluids, were the contrary motive forces which originated the
changes in the four elemental masses. Though his theory of the four
elements was to form the basis of Aristotle's physical doctrine and
thus to hold the field for centuries, His real importance lies in his
detailed working-out of a theory of sense-perception by means of "effluences" which fitted the pores of the sense-organs and which,
coupled with the principle of "like perceives like", explained our
perception of objects. His system was a halfway house to atomism. It
is probable that he envisaged an immortal part of the soul, with love
and strife as its components, which survived the dissolution of the
body, as the subject of innumerable rebirths, i.e. multiple
Empiricism: The theory that
experience is the only source of knowledge. Meaning "practical
experience", it was understood by Plato and other ancients to describe
the status of those we should still call mere empirics, that is to say,
unscientific practitioners who follow the rule of invalid methods and
accumulate disconnected devices.
Energism: In ethics, the
view that the supreme good is activation of human powers rather than
pleasure or happiness.
[Commentary]: The site position is that entirely backwards.
Engels, Friedrich: 1820-1895 AD, German Partner of
Karl Marx in developing the doctrines of
Communism: and writing the Communist Manifesto.
Aristotelian philosophy , the actualization of potentiality or of true
existence; in vitalism, the immanent force which controls and directs
life and its development.
century Greek Stoic Philosopher who taught
the duty of confining desire to what is attainable.
[Commentary]: Good luck with that, unless
that is actually what the Creator has set up.
BC Greek philosopher who founded the Epicurean school which for
five to six centuries rivaled Stoicism in the Graeco-Roman world.
Epicurism: The philosophy
that the goal of man should be a life of calm pleasure regulated by
morality, temperance, serenity, and cultural development.
[Commentary]: The site position is that with adding creativity, it
is hard to argue with this
Epiphenomenalism: The theory
that mental or conscious processes simply accompany certain neural processes
theory or doctrine that the authority to govern a church rests in a body of
bishops and not in any individual.
Epistemology: The study or theory
of the origin, nature, methods, and limits of knowledge.
Erasmus, Desider: 1466-1536 AD, Dutch .
A Christian scholar who published the first Greek text
NT. No man of letters has ever attained to anything approaching the
influence wielded by Erasmus during his own century. He rescued
theology from the pedantries of the schoolmen and referred it to its
original sources; he did more than anyone else to advance the revival
of learning; he exposed the abuses of the church.
Eschatology: Literally means
the doctrine of the end, or of the last things.
Essenes: A small
puritanical sect of the Jews in which Angeology formed a prominent
feature of their creed, and who became the forerunners of the Christian
Gnostics and Jewish Cabbalists.
Essentialism: The theory which
stresses essence as opposed to existence.
philosophical examination of such concepts as good and bad, right and
wrong, virtue and vice.
sacramental rite in which Christians partake of unleavened bread and
wine, held in some sense to represent the body and blood of Christ.
century BC Greek. Alexandrian mathematician who
produced the famous ten axioms.
Eugenics: Means "dealing with good racial stock or
offspring", and implies selective breeding programs or approaches for
Eudaemonism: The system of
ethics that considers the moral value of actions in terms of their
ability to produce personal happiness.
Euhemerism: The theory that the
gods of mythology were deified human beings; theory that myths are based on
traditional accounts of real people and events.
Eusebius of Ceas: 265-339 AD, Palestine
Father of church history.
Evangelical: Means "According to the Gospel".
[Commentary]: According to what or which
Evangelicalism: The set
of Protestant doctrines that emphasize salvation by faith in the atonement
of Jesus, and reject the efficacy of the sacraments and good works alone.
[Commentary]: The site position is that neither of these options
Evolutionism: Any general theory
that credits the unfolding of the universe and its life forms to time,
chance or processes rather than to an intelligent creator; or that the
creator relies on such processes.
[Commentary]: This has never made any
sense in terms of the origin of life, but can selectively be applied to
changes in its development.
[Commentary]: Excommunication from the
existing organizations can be a good thing.
[Commentary]: Always appropriate.
Existentialism: A philosophical
movement based on the doctrine that existence takes precedence over essence
and holds that man is totally free and responsible for his acts, and that
this responsibility is the source of the dread and anguish that encompass
theory or practice of depending on experimentation; empiricism.
Fascism: A system of
government characterized by rigid one-party dictatorship, forcible
suppression of opposition, private economic enterprise under centralized
government control, belligerent nationalism, racism:, and militarism.
Fideism: The belief that
faith alone is the basis of knowledge rather than reason.
[Commentary]: Entirely backwards!
Fraternalism: The attitude and practice of brotherhood.
beliefs based on a literal interpretation of everything in the Bible, and
regarded as fundamental to Christian faith and morals.
Fechner, Gustav: 1801-1887 AD, German
Feuerbach, Ludwig: 1804-1872 AD, German
Fichte, Johan G.: 1762-1814 AD, German
Flacius, Matthias: 1520-1575 AD, Italy
Formalist Math: Mathematical approach that
accepts proofs that logically demonstrate that a mathematical object
has to exist even though the mathematical object is not constructed.
This is called an "existence proof".
Fourier, Francois: 1772-1837 AD, French
Fox, George: 1624-1691 AD, English.
Foxe, John: 1516-1587 AD,
English Foxe's Book of Martyrs
Francis, (Saint): 1182-1226 AD, Italy, Born at Assisi
Frankel, Zacharias: 1801-1875 AD, Bohemia He was the founder of what is
known as historical Judaism, which combines full freedom of inquiry
relating to the Jewish creed and past with an observance of Jewish
religious practice as the product of the collective experience of the
Freud, Sigmund: 1856-1939 AD, Austria.
physician who first showed that the seat of the mind was the brain.
[Commentary]: An important step.
Galileo: 1564-1642 AD, Italy
Gandhi, Mohatma: 1869-1948 AD, Hindu.
Gnosticism: A system of
belief based on intuitive knowledge in spiritual matters combining ideas
derived from Greek philosophy, Oriental mysticism:, and some aspects of
Christ's teachings, stressing salvation through Gnosis.
Goethe, Johann W.: 1749-1832 AD, German.
Gomerism: Opposite of Arminianism's
five points such that:
1. Predestination is absolute, not conditional.
2. Christ died only for the elect.
3. Man is totally depraved and without free will in grace.
4. Grace is irresistible.
5. The elect cannot fall from grace.
Hammurabi: 18thcent BC Babylon.
ethical doctrine that pleasure, variously conceived of in terms of happiness
of the individual or of society, is the principal good and the proper aim of
action It now indicates unrestrained or unhealthy pleasure
Hegel, Georg W. F.: 1770-1831 AD, German.
Hegelianism: The philosophy of
Hegel, who held that every existent idea of fact belongs to an all-embracing
mind in which each idea or situation (thesis) evokes its opposite
(antithesis) and these two result in a unified whole (synthesis), which in
turn becomes a new thesis.
Heidegger, Martin: 1889-1976 AD, German
Helvetius, Claude: 1715-1771 AD, French
Henotheism: Belief in or
worship of one God without denying the existence of others.
Heraclitus: 6th cent BC Greek
Hermeneutics: The science of translation and interpretation, esp. of Biblical exegesis.
Herder, Johann G.: 1744-1803 AD, German.
Hesiod: 8th century Greek.
Hesse, Herman: 1877-1962 AD, German influential author
Heterodox: Departing from or opposed to the usual, majority
or establishment beliefs,
Heteroousian: Designating, of, or holding the theory
that God the father and God the son are different in substance.
[Commentary]: This is on; an issue in the
The six day period of the creation or an account of this.
[Commentary]: The site position is that the six day period is
Hierology: The religious
lore and literature of a people.
Higher Criticism: The
study of the authorship, dates of writing, meaning, etc., of the books of
the Bible, using the techniques or findings of archaeology, literary
criticism:, comparative religion, etc.
[Commentary]: Much of this has been
Hinduism: The religion and
social system of the Hindus, developed from Brahmanism with elements of
Buddhism:, Jainism, etc., added.
Historicism: theory of
history that holds that the course of events is determined by unchangeable
laws or cyclic patterns.
[Commentary]: Although there exist
irregular cycles, this is largely just another form of mysticism.
Hobbism: The philosophy of
Thomas Hobbes, who held that a strong government, esp. an absolute
monarchy, is necessary to control conflicting individual interests and
Hippocrates: 460-377 BC Greek Physician
Hobbes, Thomas: 1588-1679 AD, English philosopher.
Holism: The view that an organic or
integrated whole has a reality greater than the sum of
[Commentary]: Indeed! This is an important
Homiletics: The branch of
religion dealing with the writing and preaching of sermons.
[Commentary]: Appropriate for Madison
Avenue or Hollywood, but not for Gospel believers.
Homoiousian: Designating, of, or
holding the theory that God the Father and God the Son are not identical,
and yet are not different in substance.
Humanism: Any system of
thought or action based on the nature, dignity, interests, and ideals of
Man; specifically, a modern, non-theistic rationalist movement that holds
that man is capable of self-fulfillment, ethical conduct, etc. without
recourse to supernaturalism.
[Commentary]: The site promotes the
ultimate form of humanism!
Humanitarianism: 1. The doctrine that Man may perfect his own nature
without divine aid. 2. The
doctrine that Jesus was of a human, not divine, nature.
Hume, David: 1711-1776 AD,
Scot Empiricist philosopher. Associated belief with the senses, rather than cognition
[Commentary]: Entirely backwards.
Huss, John: 1369-1415
AD, Bohemian Reformer
Husserl, Edmund: Transcendental philosopher.
Hylozoism: The doctrine that
all matter has life, or that life is inseparable from matter.
[Commentary]: Nonsense that violates the
principles of contrast and identity.
Iconoclast: Lit. idol smasher. A person who attacks or ridicules traditional or venerated institutions or ideas
regarded by him as erroneous or based on superstition.
that part of the psyche which is regarded as the reservoir of the
instinctual drives and the source of psychic energy; it is dominated by
the pleasure principle and irrational wishing, and its impulses are
controlled through the development of the ego and superego.
Idealism: Any of
various theories which hold that the objects of perception are actually:
a) ideas which the mind knows directly and are not the objects
themselves; b) manifestations of an independent realm of essences or
forms that are unique and changeless.
Ideologism: Being mainly occupied with ideas.
Illusionism: The theory or
doctrine that the material world exists only in illusive sense impressions.
Ignatius, Loyola: 1491-1556 AD, Spain.
Immanentism: 1. The theory that
objects of knowledge are within the mind. 2. The doctrine that God pervades the universe.
Immaterialism: The theory or
doctrine that material things exist only as mental perceptions or ideas.
[Commentary]: Explain that to me after
trying to run through a brick wall!
Incorporeal: Not consisting of
matter; without material body or substance.
Indeterminism: The doctrine that
the human will is free or to some extent free, or that one's actions
and choices are not altogether
determined by a sequence of causes independent of one's will.
[Commentary]: The human will is hardly
free on the level of decisions, but can break free on the level of choice of
what to believe.
Indifferentism: The belief that all religions have equal
validity; or systematic indifference to religion in general.
[Commentary]: Complete nonsense! The
differences in religions can be as important as any other differences, even
those in the material world.
Individualism: The doctrine that the state exists for the
individual and not the individual for the state, and that individual freedom
should not be restricted by regulation, and that self-interest is the proper
goal of all human actions. See Egoism.
[Commentary]: The site position is that this is generally true.
Infidel: A person who does not believe in a particular religion,
esp. the prevailing religion; a
person who holds no particular religious belief.
Infralapsarian: Any of a group of
Calvinists who held that God's plan of salvation for some people followed
and was a consequence of the fall of man from grace; opposed to
Infusionism: The doctrine that
the pre-existing human soul enters the body by divine infusion at conception
or birth. Opposed to Creationism and Traducianism.
[Commentary]: The site position is that the truth is closer to
Inspiration: A spiritual prompting of
something written or said, or a motivating influence upon human beings, as that
resulting in the writing of the literature or creating art or any other
thing of merit.
Institutionalism: A belief in the usefulness or sanctity of
[Commentary]: The site position is that it is hard to defend this
pragmatic doctrine that ideas are plans for action serving as instruments
for adjustment to the environment and that their validity is tested by their
[Commentary]: Seems to be essentially
Intellectualism: The doctrine that knowledge comes wholly from
pure reason, without aid from the senses; Rationalism.
Intuitionism: The doctrine that
all things are apprehended in their real nature through intuition; in
ethics, the doctrine that the rightness of acts or fundamental moral
principles are apprehended through intuition.
Mathematical approach that accepts proofs involving a mathematical
object only if the mathematical object is actually constructed rather
than logically proved to exist. This is called "constructivist proof".
Irenics: The doctrine or practice
of promoting peace among Christian churches in relation to theological differences.
[Commentary]: "I came not to bring peace,
but fire and a sword!"
Irvingites: Catholic Apostolic Church
Islam: The Moslem religion, a monotheistic religion in which the supreme deity is
Allah and the chief prophet and founder is Mohammed who espoused
submission to the will of Allah as the ultimate answer and the way to
Isocracy: A system of
government in which all persons have equal power.
[Commentary]: The prevailing system in the
Isonomy: Equality of laws, rights and privileges.
[Commentary]: The prevailing system in the
Jainism: A Hindu
religion founded in the 6th century B.C. resembling Buddhism: and emphasizing
asceticism and reverence for all living things.
James, William: 1842-1910
AD, American, associated
belief with the will, rather than feeling or cognition.
Jansenism: The rigorous
doctrines of Cornelius Jansen, who believed in predestination, denied free
will, and held that man, though depraved in nature, is unable to resist the
grace of God.
Jefferson, Thomas: 1743-1826 AD, American.
[Commentary]: The father of much of what
is good in the Declaration and Constitution.
Josephus, Flavius: 37-100 AD, Jewish Historian
Judaism: The Jewish
religion, a monotheistic religion based on the laws and teachings of the Torah,
Prophets and literature of the OT
scriptures and the Talmud.
Justification: The act by which
a sinner is freed through faith from the penalty of his sin, and is accepted
by God as righteous.
[Commentary]: Pure misguided make-believe!
Jung, Carl G.: 1873-1961
60-140 AD, Rome
Kant, Immanuel: 1724-1804 AD, German
Kantianism: The philosophy of
Kant, who held that the content of knowledge comes a posteriori from sense
perception, but that its form is determined by a priori categories of the
mind; he also declared that God, freedom, and immortality cannot be proved
or denied by empirical knowledge though they are implied by rational morality.
Karma: In Buddhism and Hinduism,
the totality of a person's actions in any one of the successive states of
his existence, thought of as determining his fate in the next; fate,
[Commentary]: The site position is that we should be more
concerned about what we believe than our actions.
Kenosis: Jesus' humbling
himself by taking on the form of man.
[Commentary]: Total misguided nonsense! He
was always and ever totally and only human.
Kerygma: Preaching of the gospel, or emphasis on it in preaching.
[Commentary]: The true Gospel can never be
effectively preached but only shared with someone seeking.
Kierkegaard, Soren: 1813-1855 AD, Danish
Knox, John: 1505-1572 AD, Scot Reformer
Laicism: Policy and
principles opposing clericalism; restricting political influence and power
to the laity.
[Commentary]: If there is no clergy, the
term laity loses its meaning.
Lamaism: A form of
Tibetan Buddhism practiced in Tibet and Mongolia, characterized by elaborate ritual
and a strong hierarchal organization.
[Commentary]: The Dalai Lama I met knew
that this was all a concession to the unenlightened.
Lao-tse: 604-531 BC, China
Lapsarianism: The doctrine of and
the belief in the fall of mankind from grace or perfection.
approach to religion that permits liberal views, free thinking and
toleration of differing opinions.
[Commentary]: All well and good.
Legalism: Strict and
literal adherence to law or to a code; the belief in the efficacy of
[Commentary]: The site position is that this approach should be
thoroughly discredited. God operates through principles and values, not
rules and law.
Liberalism: A movement
in Protestantism: advocating a broad interpretation of the Bible, and
freedom from rigid doctrine and authoritarianism:, etc.
[Commentary]: Since the Old Testament is
the mythology of the Hebrew culture, and the New Testament was composed by
those that did NOT understand, the point is moot.
tendency to take words and statements in their literal sense.
Logical Positivism: A
movement in philosophy which tests all statements by reference to experience
or the structure of language and is concerned with the unification of the
sciences through a common logical language; also called logical empiricism.
Leibniz, G. Wilhelm: 1646-1716 AD, German.
Lenin, Vladimir: 1870-1924 AD, Russian
Locke, John: 1632-1704 AD,
English, associated belief with the cognitive rather than
feeling or volition.
called logical-positivism:, it is the attempt to separate scientific
knowledge from other knowledge, such as metaphysics, theology,
literature, knowledge deemed to be somewhat meaningless. It is really a
radically idealistic program promoting perfectibility in scientific
knowledge. Promoted by Rudolf Carnap of the Vienna School of Philosophy.
[Commentary]: Hugely misguided!
Lucretius: 96-55 BC , Roman.
Luther, Martin: 1483-1546
AD, German Reformer
[Commentary]: Luther's thinking was
largely a political reaction AGAINST Popery and Catholicism, not a careful,
intellectually responsible, philosophical starting over.
Macumba: A religious cult
in Brazil, combining voodoo with elements of Christianity.
[Commentary]: Wonderful! NOT!
Mahayama: A branch of
Buddhism: that stresses idealism:, disinterested love, relief of the suffering
of others, etc.; it developed mainly in China, Korea and Japan.
Mandean: A member of, or
relating to an ancient Gnostic sect still extant in southern Iraq.
Manichaeism: A religious
philosophy taught from the 3rd century to the 7th A.D. by the Persian
Manichaeus and his followers, combining Zoroastrianism, Gnostic, Christian
and pagan elements, and based on the doctrine of the two contending
principles of good (light, God, the soul) and evil (darkness, Satan, the
[Commentary]: A misguided mishmash of
mythical or false elements,
Marist: Of or dedicated to the Virgin Mary.
[Commentary]: Mary should be honored for
being the willing mother, but for nothing else.
Machiavelli, N.: 1469-1527 AD, Italy
Magnus, Albertus: 1206-1280 AD, German
Dominican teacher, founder of Christian Aristotelianism.
Maimonides, Moses: 1135-1204 AD, Spanish Jew
Manichaean Dualism: .
Mann, Horace: 1796-1859 AD, American
Maritain, Jacques: 1882-1973 AD, French
Marx, Karl: 1818-1883 AD, German philosopher and
Maslow, Abraham: .
Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more
basic needs at the bottom. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory
in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of
Human Motivation" in Psychological Review. Maslow subsequently
extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate
5 stages of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Stage 1: The biological and
physiological stage Stage 2: The Safety Stage
Stage 3: The Love/Belonging Stage Stage 4: The Esteem Stage Stage 5:
Mazdaism: Same as
Mechanism: The theory that all phenomena of the universe,
particularly life, can be explained by physics and chemistry.
[Commentary]: Complete reductionist
Meliorism: The belief that
the world tends naturally to get better and especially that this tendency
can be furthered by human effort.
[Commentary]: This would seem to be an
ignorant denial of reality.
Mennonite: Any member of an
evangelical Protestant sect founded in Friesland in the 16th cent. A.D.
They oppose the taking of oaths, infant baptism:, military service and the
acceptance of public office, and favor plain dress and living.
[Commentary]: The site position is that this is all seriously
misguided, and does NOTHING to further the human condition.
Meritocracy: An intellectual elite, based on academic achievement.
Metaphysics: The branch of
philosophy that deals with first principles to explain the nature of being
or reality (Ontology) and of the origin and structure of the world
(Cosmology); it is closely associated with the study of the nature of
supposed passing of the soul or psyche at death into another body, either
human or animal; transmigration.
[Commentary]: Mystical rubbish!
Methodism: Excessive adherence to systematic procedure or method.
[Commentary]: An approach for androids,
not creative humans.
Mill, John Stuart: 1806-1873 AD, English
Mithraism: The ancient Persian religion based on
the worship of Mithras, the God of light and truth.
[Commentary]: Christianity has bee
significantly contaminated with Mithraism.
Modernism: A movement
attempting to redefine Biblical and Christian dogma and traditional
teachings in the light of modern science, historical research, etc.
Mohammed: 570-632 AD, Arab
Monadism: The theory that the
universe consists of monads, simple and indivisible units. See Atomism.
Monism: The doctrine that
there is only one ultimate substance or principle, whether mind (idealism:),
matter (materialism:), or some third thing that is the basis of both; the
doctrine that reality is an organic whole without independent parts.
[Commentary]: The site position is that no parts are completely
Monogenism: The doctrine that
all human beings are descended from a single pair of ancestors.
[Commentary]: Maybe this is true in terms
of going back to the Creator, but is NOT true as it relates to the myth of
Adam and Eve in the Edenic Garden.
doctrine that Christ had but one nature or a composite one of both the human
and the divine, a tenet held by the Coptic Christians. .
Monotheism: The doctrine that there is only one God. .
[Commentary]: The site position is that there is only one ORIGINAL
Creator, but a multitude of human children Gods, and that the power is
invested in the collective consciousness, which is called the Father.
Moralism: Belief in or
practice of a system of ethics apart from formalized religion. .
[Commentary]: This is necessarily part of
the valid definition of a religion.
Montesquieu, Baron: 1689-1755 AD, French.
Morphism: . .
Morphogenesis: . .
Mysticism: The doctrine that
it is possible to achieve communion with God through contemplation and love
without the medium of human reason. Any doctrine that asserts the
possibility of attaining knowledge of spiritual truths through intuition
acquired by fixed meditation. Vague, obscure, or confused thinking or
Nativism: The doctrine of innate ideas.
Naturalism: In philosophy,
the belief that the natural world, known and experienced scientifically, is
all that exists and that there is no supernatural or spiritual creation,
control, or significance. In theology, the doctrine that religion does not
depend on supernatural experience, divine revelation, etc., and that all
religious truth may be derived from the natural world. .
[Commentary]: The site position is that this is denied by the
revelation and demonstration of Jesus.
Natural Theology: Theology
that is based on observations of natural processes and not on divine or
direct revelation. .
[Commentary]: There is certainly a place
for this in our thinking, but if this were adequate, the Creator would not
have had t risk coming to earth and being rejected and crucified.
Neoplatonism: . .
philosophical system based on scholasticism: but incorporating new elements,
particularly emphasis on the discoveries of science and on research,
to make it applicable to contemporary life. .
Nestorianism: The doctrine that
the divine and the human existed as two distinct natures in Jesus. .
[Commentary]: Unreasonable nonsense!
Newman, John H.: 1801-1890 AD, English
Newton, Isaac: 1642-1727 AD, English
Nicene Creed: A confession of
faith for Christians adopted at the first Nicene Council 325 A.D., and later
expanded to various forms accepted by most Christian denominations. .
[Commentary]: Largely misguided. See
Nicholas of Cusa: 1401-1464 AD, German.
Niebuhr, Reinhold: 1892-1971 AD, American theologian
Nietzsche, F. W.: 1844-1900 AD, German. Recognized as
one of the most influential philosophers, he gave it hard and fast, and was
the true father of the God-is-dead movement. .
Nihilism: The denial of the existence of any basis for
knowledge or truth, and therefore also meaning. .
[Commentary]: The site position is that this is a
self-disconfirming foundation for total intellectual irresponsibility.
Nirvana: In Hinduism, a
blowing out, or extinction, of the flame of life through reunion with
Brahma. In Buddhism, the state of perfect blessedness achieved by the
absorption of the soul into the supreme spirit, or by the extinction of all
desires and passions. .
Nominalism: A doctrine of the
Middle Ages that all universal or abstract terms are mere necessities of
thought or conveniences of language and therefore exist as names only and
have no general realities corresponding to them. .
Nomism: The basing of conduct upon adherence to any fiat,
religious law based on holy scripture. .
[Commentary]: See Legalism.
Noumenon: In Kantian
philosophy, an object reached by intellectual intuition, without the aid of
the senses; Opposed to phenomenalism.
Noumenalism: The doctrine maintaining the existence of noumena.
Nostradamus: 1503-1566 AD, French.
Novationism: The doctrine of a substituted
new obligation or contract for an old one by the mutual
agreement of all parties concerned. .
Numerology: A system of occultism built around numbers; divination by numbers.
Objectivism: The name given
to the philosophy of Ayn Rand, it is based on the idea that only living
creatures face a fundamental alternative, that of life or death. "Where
no alternative exists, no goals and no values are possible." It is the
existence of the alternative that enables goal-directed action, and the
objective requirements of sustaining life as the ultimate end (purpose)
that gives rise to (objective) values–values defensible in terms of
their life-sustaining service. .
Obscurantism: Opposition to human progress or enlightenment,
making things obscure. .
Occasionalism: The doctrine that
mind and matter cannot interact and that God intervenes in each instance
where an act of mind is coordinated with a movement of the body. .
Occultism: Belief in hidden,
secret, mysterious, esoteric forces and powers beyond human understanding. .
Occam or William of Ockham: 1287 – 1347 AD. An English
Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher and theologian. Occam's razor is
the methodological principle that bears his name. His theological position
was,"God has freely chosen to create a world and establish a way of
salvation within it apart from any necessary laws that human logic or
rationality can uncover".
[Commentary]: His methodological principle
is of limited value, and the site author can't find any reason to take his
Omnipotent: All powerful or having all the power. Omni does
NOT mean infinite, .
Omnipresent: Always, everywhere present.
Omniscient: All knowing or having all knowledge. Does NOT imply
knowledge of a future that hasn't been created yet.
Ontic: Having the status of real and ultimate existence.
Ontological Argument: An a priori argument for the existence of God, asserting
that the conception of a perfect being implies that
being's existence outside man's mind. .
[Commentary]: One of the seemingly valid
Ontology: The Branch of
metaphysics dealing with the nature of being, reality or ultimate substance.
view that concepts or terms of purportedly factual statements must be
definable in terms of identifiable and repeatable activities,
experimental performances, etc., it is the basis for the scientific method.
[Commentary]: A seemingly valid way of
Opportunism: The practice of
policy of adapting one's actions, judgments, etc., to circumstances in
order to further one's immediate interests, usually without regard for basic
principles or eventual consequences. .
[Commentary]: It is overly aggressive
opportunism that is objectionable.
Optimism: The doctrine
held by Leibniz and others that the existing world is the best possible;
or, the doctrine that good ultimately prevails over evil. .
[Commentary]: Maybe more difficult than
Pessimism, but better.
Organon: A system of principles used in investigation.
Original Sin: In Christendom,
the first Sin of Adam held to have introduced the overpowering tendency to
sin in mankind. .
[Commentary]: Extant ideas about original
sin are just based on Edenic myth
Orthodox: Literally right
opinion, conforming to the accepted or established beliefs and doctrines. .
[Commentary]: It is ironic the "orthodox",
now represent an almost completely false set of beliefs.
Ortega y Gasset: 1883-1955 AD, Spain.
Ovid: 43 BC-17 AD, Rome.
Pacifism: Opposition to
the use of force under any circumstances. .
[Commentary]: A license for defeat and
victimhood from the ruthless.
religion from the perspective of monotheistic religions. .
Pandemonium: The posited abode of all demons.
[Commentary]: Colorful, fantasy and myth.
Pansophism: Pretension to universal wisdom or knowledge. .
[Commentary]: This is a valid and worthy
Pantheism: The doctrine that God is not a person, but that all
laws, forces, manifestations, etc. of the self-existing universe are God. .
Pantheon: The entire set of planet gods in the heavens.
Papist: A person who believes in papal supremacy.
Paraclete: A powerful and capable advocate, protector, intercessor or comforter.
Paradigm: A necessary foundational pattern, framework,
example or model; essentially a structure for organizing knowledge for
integration leading to
Parallelism: The theory that
mind and matter, though independent, function together in a parallel, but
without an interactive causal relationship.
[Commentary]: The site position is that this is meaningless because we
have overwhelming evidence that the influence and thus interact.
Paralogism: A discourse,
reason or reasoning contrary to or inconsistent with logic; a faulty argument.
Parousia: The Greek word
which means the coming out, the blossoming forth, the coming into public
prominence, being put on full display or the coming into glory.
Particularism: The Calvinistic
doctrine that redemption is possible only for particular persons.
Pascal, Blaise: 1623-1662 AD, French.
Paternalism: The system of
governing or controlling a country, group, or employees in a manner
suggesting a father's relationship with his children.
[Commentary]: The problem is that paternalism
often devolves into dictatorship.
Patriarchy: A form of social
organization in which the father or eldest male is recognized as the head of
the family or tribe; political structure run or dominated by men.
Patristic: Of the early leaders, or fathers, of the Christian church
or the writings and doctrines attributed to them.
Pelagianism: The belief that original sin did not taint
human nature and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil
without special Divine aid.
[Commentary]: A misguided sideshow based on a
misunderstanding of Sin.
Pentecostal: Any of various Protestant fundamental sects
stressing direct quasi-tangible inspiration by the Holy Spirit.
[Commentary]: It is the position of the site
that this is misguided confusion of naturally aroused excitement, and is
worthless for spiritual growth and healing the human condition.
Perfectionism: Any doctrine that holds that moral, religious,
or social perfection can and should be attained in this life.
[Commentary]: Acceptable as long as perfection
is understood as maturity of purpose, values and principles.
Personalism: Any doctrine or movement that emphasizes the
rights, priority, centrality or sovereignty of the individual.
[Commentary]: The site author embraces this
Pessimism: The doctrine or
belief that the existing world is the worst possible; or, the doctrine or
belief that the evil in life overshadows or outweighs the good.
[Commentary]: Every individual should make
that determination for themselves.
Phenomenalism: The theory
that knowledge is limited to phenomena, either because there is no reality
beyond phenomena or because such reality is unknowable.
[Commentary]: The site position is not in
agreement with this.
Philo of Alexandria:
Philosophy: Love of, or the
search for, wisdom and knowledge. Theory or logical and reasonable analysis of the
principles underlying conduct, thought, knowledge, life and the nature of
both Man and the
universe; including ethics, aesthetics, logic, epistemology, metaphysics, etc.
[Commentary]: One can't be intellectually
responsible without being interested in philosophy.
Physicalism: The theory that
all referential terms in scientific or meaningful statements are reducible
to terms connected with physical objects or events, or with their properties.
[Commentary]: Misguided, reductionist
Pietism: A system that stresses the devotional ideal in religion, originally Lutheran.
Plato: 427-347 BC, Greek philosopher following Socrates
Platonism: The doctrine
holding that objects of perception are real insofar as they imitate
essences, ideas, or logical forms which constitute the world of essential
reality. See idealism.
Pliny the Elder: 23-79 AD, Roman
Pluralism: The theory that
reality is composed of a multiplicity of ultimate beings, principles, or
substances; the theory that ultimate reality has more than one explanation.
Plutarch: 46-120 AD, Greek
Polytheism: Belief in or worship of more than one god.
Originally based on the pantheon of planet or sun gods.
Popper, Karl: 1902 – 1994 AD. Austrian-British philosopher
and professor generally regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of
science of the 20th century. Famous for favoring empirical falsification for
the scientific method over inductive justification.
[Commentary]: One of the brighter lights in
some areas of modern philosophy.
Porphyry: 234 – c. 305 AD. A Neoplatonic philosopher, born
in Tyre, who accepted Jesus as an outstanding and pious philosopher but
attacked Christianity without attacking Jesus.
[Commentary]: This stance parallels part of
the site stance.
Positivism: A system of
philosophy originated by Auguste Comte basing knowledge solely on sensory
perception or observable, scientific facts and their relations to each
other; it rejects speculation about or search for ultimate origins.
[Commentary]: An inadequate, reductionist
Pragmatism: A method or
tendency in philosophy which determines the meaning and truth of all
concepts and tests their validity by their practical results.
[Commentary]: The site position is that it is hard to argue against
Predestination: The theological doctrine that God foreordained everything that would happen; also,
God predestines certain souls to salvation and, esp. in Calvinism:, others to damnation.
[Commentary]: This doctrine makes God
despicable, and it is one of the most insidious doctrines that is widely
accepted by Christians in spite of the fact that even the Bible doesn't
teach this. It makes a mockery of human volition and free will.
epistemological theory that in perception the mind is directly aware of an
external object without any intervening medium.
Probabilism: The doctrine that
certainty in knowledge is impossible and that probability is a sufficient
basis for action and belief. The theory that moral law does not bind in
cases where it is doubtful, and that it may be considered doubtful if
accredited theologians have denied that it binds in particular cases.
[Commentary]: We hold our knowledge and
judgment because it is beyond a reasonable doubt.
Prophecy: Any information
or a prediction of the future given under divine influence.
Protagoras: 481-411 BC, Greek
Proudhon, Pierre J.: 1809-1865 AD, French
Psyche 1. The human soul. 2.
The mind; esp., Psychiatry the mind considered as a subjectively
perceived, functional entity,
based ultimately upon physical processes but with complex processes of its
own: it governs the total organism: and its interactions with the
Psychoanalysis: A method, developed by Freud, Rank, Jung and
others, of investigating mental processes and of treating neuroses
and some other disorders of the mind based on the assumption that such
disorders are the result of the rejection by the conscious mind of factors
that then persist, causing conflicts which may be resolved or diminished by
discovering and analyzing the repressions and bringing them into
consciousness through various techniques.
Psychology: The science
dealing with the mind and mental and emotional processes, patterns and behavior.
Ptolemy: 2nd century Greek Astronomer
Puritanism: An approach to life that is extremely or
excessively strict in matters of morals and religion.
Pythagoras: ?-497 BC Greek
Pythagoreanism: The philosophy of Pythagoras, the main
tenets of which were the transmigration of the soul and the belief in
numbers as the ultimate elements of the universe.
[Commentary]: Largely mystical nonsens!
Quietism: A form of
religious mysticism: that involves extinction of the human will, withdrawal
from worldly concerns, and passive contemplation of God and divine things.
[Commentary]: A negation of much of what it is
to be human.
Rationalism: In philosophy,
the doctrine that knowledge comes wholly from pure reason, without aid from
the senses; Intellectualism. In theology, the doctrine that rejects
revelation and the supernatural, and makes reason the sole source for
Realism: The doctrine
that universals or abstract terms are objectively actual; the doctrine that
material objects exist in themselves, apart from the mind's consciousness of
them; opposed to nominalism.
Reconstructionism: A 20th century. movement in Judaism: that
stresses a dynamic creativity in adjusting to modern times.
Reductionism: Any usually unjustified method or theory that
reduces integrated information, structures, processes, or statements to
seeming equivalents that are less complex, developed or of a lower order.
Reify, reification: To treat a spiritual (non-material) reality
as substantially existing, or as a concrete material object having physical
Representationalism: The theory that the mind apprehends
external objects only through the medium of percepts or ideas.
Resistentialism: The theory or doctrine that the Universe is set
up so that toast with marmalade will tend to fall with the marmalade
side up onto cheap carpet and that side down on expensive carpet.
Revelation:  Theol., God's disclosure, unveiling or manifestation to
man of himself, his character and will, or foundational truth.
[Commentary]: The apocalypse or revelation was
actually a real-life, public demonstration that unfolded over a period of
about 3 years, and ending with a crucifixion and resurrection.
Revisionist: A person who revises, or favors revising, some
widely accepted theory or doctrine.
[Commentary]: There is an important
revisionist movement taking place now in AD or C.E. Chronology.
Ritualism: The observance and use of ritual; an excessive devotion to ritual.
[Commentary]: Any valid ritual would be
developed spontaneously by a contemporary group, not some ancient ritual
developed by people unknown.
Russell, Bertrand: 1872-1970 AD, English
Sabbatarian: Pertaining to the
doctrine of observing one day a week as a religious holy or rest day.
[Commentary]: The site position is that all such sacred days were
devoted to a false god.
in the efficacy of the sacraments or that they are necessary to salvation.
[Commentary]: Complete moronic, mystical
Sade, Marquis de: 1740-1814 AD, French
Santayana, George: 1863-1952 AD, American.
Sappho: 7th century BC Greek poet
Sartre, Jean Paul: 1905-1980 AD, French philosopher that
contributed to existential philosophy.
Satanism: Satan or devil
worship, esp. observing rites that debase Christian ceremonies.
Saturnian: Identified with
Molech, Greek Kronos or Roman god Saturn, whose reign was called "the golden age";
prosperous, peaceful, contented Edenic.
Savonarola, G.: 1452-1498 AD, Italy
Scholasticism: A system of logic,
philosophy, and theology of medieval university scholars based upon
Aristotelian logic and the writings of the early Christian fathers and the
authority of tradition and dogma.
Schopenhauer, Arthur: 1788-1860 AD, German
Schweitzer, Albert: 1875-1965 AD, French
Scientism: The principle that scientific methods can and
should be applied in all fields of investigation. Treating science and its
findings as the ultimate religion, one that trumps all other ways of
thinking or approaches to the truth.
Secularism: A system of
doctrines and practices that disregards or rejects any form of deistic or
faith and worship; or, the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs
should not enter into the functions of the state or public education.
Semiotic: A general
theory of signs and symbols; esp. the analysis of the nature and
relationships of signs in language, including three branches: syntactics,
semantics, and pragmatics.
Seneca, Lucius: 4 BC-65 AD, Rome
Sensationalism: The belief that all knowledge is acquired through the senses.
[Commentary]: Even if true, so what?
Sensualism: The system of ethics which holds that the
pleasure of the senses constitute the greatest good.
[Commentary]: An imbalanced, reductionist
ideology, because spiritual (intellectual, psychological, emotional, etc.,
satisfaction or please are probably MORE important.
Shamanism: The religion of
certain peoples based on a belief in good and evil spirits who can be
influenced only by the shamans.
[Commentary]: Just another weird, deformed
belief system that reduces individual value, sovereignty and responsibility.
Shaw, George B.: 1856-1950 AD, English.
Shintoism: A principle religion of Japan, prior to
Japan's losing the war in 1945; a state religion, with emphasis upon
the worship of nature, ancestors, ancient heroes and the divine emperor.
[Commentary]: What Good is a religion if it
ultimately doesn't bring you success? When Japan was soundly defeated in
WWII, Shintoism lost its hold on the Japanese people, and has now been
reduces to just a cultural feature.
Skepticism: The philosophical
doctrine that the truth of all knowledge must always be in question and that
inquiry must be a process of doubting.
[Commentary]: The site position is that a healthy skepticism is a kind
of Paraclete. See Paraclete.
Snow, C. P.: 1905-1980 AD, English
Socinianism: The theological
doctrines of Faustus Socinus, denying the divinity of Jesus, the Trinity,
etc., and explaining sin and salvation rationalistically.
[Commentary]: The site position is that the paradigm of the Gospel
makes most of this moot.
Sociobiology: A simplistic, reductionist field of thinking
that tries to explain the myriad aspects of life in terms of the "Selfish
[Commentary]: Severely reductionist approach
that is demeaning to the nobility of humans.
Socrates: 470-399 BC, Greek.
Solipsism: The theory that
the self can know nothing with certainty beyond its own existence, and be aware of nothing but its own experience and states;
or, that every experience could be an illusion or internally self-generated
dream, or, the
theory that nothing exists or is real but the self.
[Commentary]: The site position is that there is no logical way of
refuting this paradigm, but that you can choose to believe something better.
Solomon: 10th century BC Israel
Solon: 638-559 BC Athens
Soteriology: Salvation or the study of salvation.
Spencer, Herbert: 1820-1903 AD, English
Spinoza, Baruch: 1632-1677 AD, Dutch
philosophy of Spinoza, who taught that there is but one infinite
substance, God (or Nature), having infinite attributes of which only
thought and extension are knowable.
[Commentary]: Spinoza challenged a lot of
traditional shibboleths, but the above concept is unworthy of him.
Spiritualism: 1. The belief
that the dead survive as spirits which can communicate with the living. 2.
The philosophical doctrine that all reality is in essence spiritual; idealism.
[Commentary]: Superstition and
Stoicism: The philosophy
founded by Zeno about 308 B.C., holding that all things, properties,
relations, etc. are governed by unvarying natural laws, and that the wise
man should follow virtue alone, obtained through reason, remaining
indifferent to the external world and to passion or emotion.
Structuralism: A movement emphasizing determining and analyzing the basic,
relatively stable structural elements of a system, esp. in the behavioral sciences.
Subjectivism: 1. The phil.
theory that all knowledge is subjective and relative, never objective 2.
any phil. theory that restricts knowledge in some way to the subjective
elements, as by limiting external reality to only what can be known or
inferred by subjective standards of truth.
[Commentary]: There may be a lot of truth to
this, but so what?
Substance: The real or
essential part or element of anything, i.e., something that hasbunique, independent
existence and is acted upon by causes or events.
Substantialism: The doctrine that there are entities or beings
underlying all phenomena as the subjects in which various properties inhere.
Superego: In psychoanalytical philosophy and Psychoanalysis,
that part of the psyche which is critical of the self or ego and enforces
moral standards: at an unconscious level it blocks unacceptable impulses of the id.
that some supernatural, or divine (existing or occurring outside the normal
experience or knowledge of man), force controls nature and the universe.
[Commentary]: The site position is that nature seems to unfold
according to natural laws.
Superstition: Any belief or
attitude, usually based on fear and/or ignorance, that is inconsistent with the known
laws of science or with what is generally considered in the particular
society as true and rational.
Supralapsarianism: The view that God decreed the election of some to
salvation and the rest to damnation and thereafter decreed the fall of man through
the sin of
disobedience. Any of a group of Calvinist Christians who hold that God's
plan of salvation for some people preceded the fall of man from grace, which
had been predestined or determined.
[Commentary]: The site position is that this is unworthy, misguided
Sutra: Hindu, a precept or maxim. Buddhism, a scriptural
narrative, esp. an account of a dialogue or sermon of the Buddha.
Syllogism: An argument or
form of reasoning in which two statements or premises are made and a logical
conclusion drawn from them; reasoning from the general to the particular.
Syncretism: The combination
or reconciliation of differing beliefs or practices in religion, philosophy,
etc., or an attempt to effect such compromise.
Synoptic: Lit. same-vision, giving an account from the same point of view.
reasoning, or more common, in Hegelian philosophy, the unified whole in
which opposites (thesis and antithesis) are reconciled.
[Commentary]: The site position is that what is needed is a complete
bringing together of all relevant knowledge to synthesize the truth about
God, reality, and ourslelves.
Swedenborg, Emanuel: 1688-1772 AD, Swede
Taine, Hippolyte: 1828-1893 AD, French
Taoism: A Chinese religion and
philosophy based on the teachings of Lao-Tse and advocating logic and
[Commentary]: The site position is that it was actually one of the
more enlightened and successful religious systems in the history of the
world, and it made China great for a while.
Teleology: The study of final causes or ultimate purpose.
Textualism: Strict adherence to the text, esp. the Bible scriptures.
Thales: 640-546 BC Greek
Theanthropism: The attributing of human characteristics to God or a god;
the doctrine of the union of divine and human natures in Jesus.
Theism: Belief in one God who is creator and ruler of the universe and
known by a special, more direct revelation than what can be inferred from nature. Contrast Deism.
Theocracy: The rule of a state by God or God-appointed agency.
[Commentary]: In our fallen world, this ALWAYS
become corrupt and oppressive.
Theodicy: A system of natural theology aimed at seeking to
vindicate divine justice in allowing evil to exist.
[Commentary]: The site position is that evil exists because of the
ethos of freedom and liberty, and it can ONLY be expunged by a unified
inspirational vision and understanding.
Theology: The study of God and the relations between God and
the universe; a specific form of this study.
Theophany: A visible, audible or tangible appearance of God or a god to man.
Theosophy: Any of various
philosophies or religious systems that propose to establish direct, mystical
contact with divine principle through contemplation, revelation, etc.
Theurgy: Supposed divine or supernatural intervention in human affairs.
Thomism: It has the
fundamental thesis that natural and revealed truth form a single whole
to which the human mind can attain with certainty by its natural and
[Commentary]: The site doesn't disagree with
Thoreau, Henry: 1817-1862 AD, American.
Totalitarianism: A government or state in which one political force
maintains complete control under a dictatorship and bans all others.
Traditionalism: The doctrine that
the only valid religious belief is that handed down by tradition from an
original divine revelation.
[Commentary]: A formula for being stuck in
Traducianism: The theological doctrine that God is not involved
in the creation of a newborn soul, which, excluding outside influential factors, is inherited
from the parents; opposed to Creationism and Infusionism.
[Commentary]: This is the position of the
Transcendentalism: A pure
science of the ego examined introspectively, a philosophical outlook
brought to its highest formulation by Edmund Husserl who maintained the
outlook that there is a "first philosophy that could be grasped by
introspective intuition into the transcendental structure of
consciousness–the very ground of being. Any of various philosophies
that propose to discover the nature of reality by
investigating the process of thought rather than the objects of sense experience.
[Commentary]: The site position is that we need both.
Christendom, the doctrine that, in the Eucharist, the whole substances
of the bread and of the wine are changed into the body and blood of Christ.
[Commentary]: this is gross, hypocritical,
Tritheism: The doctrine
that the Christian Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are three distinct persons
or god entities;
belief in three gods.
[Commentary]: The site position is that the Father is the corporate or
collective consciousness of all unfallen humans, and the Holy Spirit is the
totality of their purpose, values and characters. This doesn't leave Jesus
alone, but with a myriad of his peers in a truly unified democratic society.
Tyndale, William: 1492-1536 AD, English Reformer
Uniformatarianism: The doctrine that all geologic changes
may be explained by existing physical and chemical processes that have
operated in essentially the same way throughout geologic time; denies astral catastrophe.
[Commentary]: The site author unabashedly
denies uniformitarianism and accepts astral catastrophe and electric
discharge scarring for the vast majority of geologic features.
Unitarianism: The system of
belief that denies the doctrine of the Trinity, accepting the moral
teaching, but rejecting the divinity, of Jesus, and holding that God exists
in only one person.
[Commentary]: The site thinking denies the
trinity of persons, but accepts the moral teaching and divinity of Jesus,
and conceives of the Father as the collective of all unfallen humans.
Universalism: The theological
doctrine that all souls will eventually find salvation in the grace of God.
[Commentary]: If everyone comes to a knowledge
of the truth and repents, would you vote against this and demand that they
cease to exist forever? This still leaves room for some individuals to opt out of
Univocalism: The posture or
attitude of having a single, sharply defined sense of nature.
Utilitarianism: The doctrine that
the worth or value of anything is determined solely by its utility; the
doctrine that the purpose of all action should be to bring about the
greatest happiness of the greatest number.
[Commentary]: The site position is that there is a lot of truth in
Utopianism: The ideas,
doctrines and aims of an idealistic visionary's schemes for producing
perfection in social and political conditions.
[Commentary]: This cannot happen until there
is unity in the truth.
Valentine, (Saint): 3rd century AD, Roman Martyr
Vitalism: The doctrine
that the life in living organisms is caused and sustained by a vital force
that is distinct from all physical and chemical forces and that life is, in
part, self-determining and self-evolving.
[Commentary]: The site position is that it is hard to argue against
Volition: The faculty to
choose belief, to decide to act or think, to will to be, the will to have
values and self-commitment to ultimate purpose.
Voluntarism: Any theory which holds that reality is ultimately
of the nature of will or that the will is the primary factor in experience.
[Commentary]: The site position is that there
Is a lot of truth in
Voodoo: A primitive and superstitious religion based on belief
in sorcery and in the power of tangible charms, fetishes, etc.
Weber, Max: 1864-1920 AD, German
Weltanschauung: A personal, comprehensive philosophical
integration of the knowledge of the universe, reality and of human life.
Wesley, John: 1703-1791 AD, English Methodism
Whitehead, A. N.: 1861-1947 AD, English
Wisdom: That propitious
combination of knowledge, proper belief, and valid experience that enables one
to follow the best judgment or the soundest course of action.
Wycliffe, John: 1320-1384 AD, Eng
Xavier, Francis: 1506-1552 AD, Spain
Yin-Yang: A system of thinking in terms of contrasting
opposites. A Chinese philosophy
Zeitgeist: The spirit or thinking of a civilization during an
era or age.
Zenda-Vesta: The sacred writings of the Zoroastrians.
Zeno: 342-270 BC Greek Stoicism.
Zoomorphism: The attributing of animal forms or characteristics to God.
[Commentary]: The site position is that this is uncalled for except at
it applies to being human.
Zoroaster: & 6th century BC Persia
Zoroastrianism: The religious
system of the Persians before their conversion to Islam; its principles
include belief in an afterlife and in the continuing struggle of the
universal spirit lord of good with the universal spirit lord of evil, with
the good ultimately prevailing. Persian writings of it are the Avesta.
Zwingli, Ulrich: Swiss