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This section is taken from chapter 9 of Godstar
Dwardu Cardona, God Star, Trafford Publishing, Victoria, BC, Canada 2006
The Sabbath Star
In Chapter 4 we claimed[*] that the Hebrew name for the planet Saturn,
that is Shabtai, was responsible for the naming of the Sabbath, in
Hebrew Shahhath, the Saturday of the Jews As we also noted in
that same chapter, the word Shabbath is sometimes said to derive
from the closely related shahath, which means "to repose" or "to
This meaning, in turn, has been said to have arisen because Elohim
rested from his work of Creation on that day.
What is indicated by this is that Elohim's rest came first, for which
the Sabbath was then named. It seems, however, that there is more to
this "resting" business than meets the eye. Or why would the planet in
question have been named for that particular day. Thus also
receiving the meaning of "rest"?
The connection of Saturn with the Creation is not
restricted to Hebrew tradition. In Chapter 4, we also had occasion to
mention a similar tradition as believed in by the Persians. We repeat
that tradition here as recorded by Al-Biruni:
"On the 6th day of Farwardin, the day Khurdadh,
is the great Nauroz, for the Persians a feast of great importance.
On this day–they say–God finished the creation, for it is the last
of the six days...On this day God created Saturn ..."
What did the planet Saturn have to do with Creation
or the resting of Elohim? Why was Saturn known as the
Lord of the
One of the strange things about the Sabbath is that
it is the only day to which the Israelites gave a name. The rest of the
days of the week were called by their ordinal numbers. Why this
exception? Why was Saturn of importance even to the ancient Hebrews? Not
that in later times, they were overly proud of this. In fact, as
William Heidel informs us, they resented the identification of the Sabbath with
Saturn's day for long afterwards?
That Shabtai, sometimes referred to as Kokab Sabet,
also called the Sabbath Star, meant "the resting Star or Planet" is
In his attempt to connect the order of Creation, day by day, as
described in the Book of Genesis, with the different planetary
deities honored traditionally on the successive days of the seven-day
week, Robert Gravy muddled the entire
issue. The only points of validity that he mentioned is the well known
of the Jewish Sabbath with Saturn
and the fact that this planetary deity had long been known as the god of
repose, that is of rest. But, if we discount the derivation of the
name Shabtai from the business of
Elohim's rest after Creation, what can we offer by way of la explanation
for this unusual characteristic? Or, why was the planet Saturn called
Star or Planet?
The God of the Jews
The Israelite connection
with the planet Saturn goes beyond the naming of the Sabbath after this
planetary deity. Thus, for
instance, when the prophet Amos was riling against the Israelites, he accused them of having carried images of a stellar
deity in a tabernacle. The King James version of
the passage in question is made to read:
"Have ye offered...sacrifices and offerings in the wilderness forty
years, O house of Israel? But ye have
borne the tabernacle of your Moloch and Chiun your images, the star of your god, which
ye made to yourselves."
This memory was still vivid in the days of the New Testament and is
repeated in the Acts of the Apostles where the figure of Chiun is
replaced with that of Remphan:
"...O ye house of Israel, have ye offered...slain
beasts and sacrifices by the space of
years in the wilderness? Yea, ye
took up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the star
god Remphan, figures which ye made
to worship them... 
This is in keeping with
the Septuagint version of the same passage which reads:
offered...victims and sacrifices, O house of Israel, forty years in the
wilderness? Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the star of
your god Raephan, the
images of them which ye
made for yourselves."
The forty years in the
wilderness alluded to in the above verses refer to the wandering of the Israelites following
their departure, or exodus, from Egypt under Moses. Concerning the
Moloch we will offer nothing here,
reserving the topic for a future work. Here I
concentrate on the god called
Chiun in one version and Remphan/Raephan in the others.
Who was this deity?
In both Amos and Acts this god is alluded to as "the star
is the star of the Israelites'
god. But what star did Remphan personify?
In the Testament of
Solomon, Remphan is rendered Raphan concerning whom Solomon
to have built a temple in
conjunction with one to Baal/Moloch. The Testament of Solomon
is of Jewish origin but, as Louis Ginzberg informs us, as we now have
it, it is laden 'with
many Christian layers."
This is noted here because the name Raphan (or Ramphan or
is unknown in Hebrew and must
therefore have been introduced, or transliterated,
by one of
the Christian editors. Ginzberg
was of the opinion that Raphan (or Rephaim) is a reminiscence of a Hebrew word meaning "the shades," but it is more
than probable that the name Remphan is nothing but a mistransliteration
into Greek of the same Chiun in the King James version of Amos.
Jerome interpreted the star of Chiun as Lucifer which is
popularly, but erroneous believed to have stood for the planet
Venus. But as Martin Sieff correctly stated, Chiun was the
Assyrian name for Saturn, the same as the Syriac Kewan (and the very
Hebrew Khevan) 
One question that comes to mind at this point is: What were the
Israelites doing running about the desert with the image of the
Saturnian star in their tabernacle?
Let us be honest: Present Jewish and Christian sentiments
notwithstanding, it has long been known that Saturn was the god of the
Jews. In more recent years, for instance, Carl Jung knew very well that
Saturn was the star of Israel. Much earlier, Aurelius Augustin was
more explicit when he informed his readers that the ancients considered
the planet Saturn as the god of the Jews. Throughout the Middle Ages,
the Jews were largely known as the People of Saturn
 (as so,
incidentally, were the Scythians). This belief, however, is much older
than that since even the Roman historian Tacitus (c. A.D. 55-117)
described the Jews as worshipping the planet Saturn as their god.
Whether the tabernacle in question was the acclaimed one that Moses
was said to have had constructed, and in which the famed ark of the
covenant was housed, remains a question. This much, however,
should be stated: While the tabernacle which Moses had had built is
usually referred to as the Mishkan and/or the Ohel, the tabernacle
mentioned in the Hebrew version of Amos is simply called sukot,
the plural of suka, meaning "tents."
 W. A. Heidel,
The Day of Yahweh (N. Y., 1929), p. 465.
 J. Strong, Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary (Madison, N. J., 1890), p. 112.
 Genesis 2:2.
 Al-Biruni (translated by E. C. sachau), The Chronology of Ancient Nations (London,
1879), p. 2(
 R. Klibansky et al., Saturn and
Melancholy (London, 1964), p. 161.
 W. A. Heidel, op. cit., p. 437.
 R. H. Stieglitz, "The Hebrew Names of the Seven Planets," Journal of Near Eastern Studio, 1980).
 W. A. Heidel, op. cit., p. 465.
 R. H. Stieglitz, loc. cit.
 R, Graves, The White Goddess: A Historical Grammar of Poetic Myth (N. Y., 1979), p.
 Amos 5:25-26.
 Acts 7:42-43.
 L. Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews, Vol. IV (Philadelphia 1968), pp. 153-154.
 Ibid., Vol. VI, p. 292.
 Ibid.,p. 293.
 J. Strong, A Concise Dictionary of the Words in the Greek Testament (N. J.,
1890), p. 63.
 See, I. Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision (N. Y., 1950), p. 176.
 Sec here, D. Cardona, "Morning Star," II, AEON IV:2 (August 1995), pp. 36 ff.
 J. Lewy, "The Old West Semitic Sun-God Hammu," Hebrew Union College
Annual (Cincinnati, 1944), pp. 456-457.
 C. Jung, Symbols of Transformation (N. Y., 1976), p. 401.
 See the Index to E. Hoffman's edition of Augustine's De Civitate Dei (Vienna,
 H. Lewy, "Origin and Significance of the Magen Dawid," Archiv Orientalni 18, Pt. 3
(1950), p. 360.
 I. Velikovsky, "On Saturn and the Flood," KRONOS V:1 (Fall 1979), p. 10.
 Tacitus, The Histories, V:iv
Site note insertions
[*] Another nocturnal feast ...is also held in some parts of India,
when the thirteenth day of a lunar fortnight happens to fall
on a Saturday. In Sanskrit the day of Saturday is called Shanivar
which, Shani being Saturn, translates as "Saturn's Day." Actually,
Saturday was the day held sacred to Saturn among more than one ancient
nation and, to this day, it continues to bear the planet's name not only
in Sanskrit. To the Jews, Saturday is Shabbath (the Dabbath),
which word is sometimes said to derive from the closely related
Shabath, which means "to repose" or " to rest." In fact, however,
the Sabbath is named in honor of Saturn which, in Hebrew, is called Shabtai. The word Shabath–"to repose"–is then traceable
to the same root, derived because Elohim was said to have rested from
creation on that day. In Italian, Saturday is rendered Sabato, derived
from Hebrew through the Greek Sabbaton. In Maltese, Saturday is called
Sibt, derived from the same Semitic root. The English name Saturday is
itself a contraction of the Saxon Satur's day (or Daeg) from the Latin
Saturni Dies. Even in Indo-China, and more specifically Cambodia,
Saturday is named in honor of Prah Sau, which is the planet Saturn.
 Hindi-English edition of Bhargavas
Standard Illustrated Dictionary of the Hindi Language (Varanasi,
1960), p. 1017. V. S. Apte, The Practical
Sanskrit-English Dictionary. (Delhi), 1975, entry under "Shanivar."
 J. Strong, Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary,
(Madison N.J, 1890), p. 112
 W.A. Heidel, op. cit., p, 465.
 Genesis 2:2.
 C. H. Marchal, "The Mythology of Indo-China and
Java," Asiatic Mythology, (N.Y,, 1972), p. 198.